NOS2

(redirected from Inducible NOS)

NOS2

A gene on chromosome 17q11.2-q12 that encodes inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a small molecule that has various roles in cellular functions and acts via a cGMP-mediated signal transduction pathway. iNOS is both tumouricidal and bactericidal, has nitrosylase activity, and mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of cytoplasmic target proteins such COX2. It is regulated by calcium/calmodulin, induced by endotoxins and cytokines, including IFN-gamma, in synergy with bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS, TNF or IL1B/IL-1 beta). Aspirin inhibits its expression and function. Some genetic variants of NOS2 play a role in resistance to malaria. NOS2 is also a less preferred gene symbol for what is now designated as NANOS2, see there.
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Inducible NOS (iNOS) is a calcium-independent enzyme associated with inflammatory markers and can be produced by macrophages and various other cells under pathological conditions.
Neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA and protein levels were measured in each sample by using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.
Wu and Meininger (2002) demonstrated that inadequate intake of dietary arginine impairs NO synthesis by both constitutive and inducible NOS in animals, indicating a role of adequate arginine nutrition in immune function.
Neuronal and inducible NOS are more commonly found in their soluble form than the membrane-bound one.
Thus, the dynamic reduction activities ofNO and eNOS occurred against a background of increasing the activity of inducible NOS and concentration of [ONO-.
Oxidative stress is known to upregulate the synthesis of neuronal and inducible NOS, leading to overproduction of NO, which acts as a neurodestructive agent by the production of peroxynitrites.
Table 1: Different forms of NO synthase have been classified as follows (14) Name Genes Location Neuronal NOS NOS1 Nervous Tissue (nNOS or NOS1) Skeletal Muscle Type Ii Inducible NOS NOS2 Immune System (iNOS or NOS2) Cardiovascular System Endothelial NOS NOS3 Endothelium (eNOS or NOS3 or cNOS) Bacterial NOS multiple Various Gram(+) Species (bNOS) Name Function Neuronal NOS Cell communication (nNOS or NOS1) Inducible NOS Immune defense against (iNOS or NOS2) pathogens Endothelial NOS Vasodilation (eNOS or NOS3 or cNOS) Bacterial NOS Defense Against Oxidative (bNOS) Stress, Antibiotics, Immune Attack
NOS are composed of subtypes ac- cording to naming, constitutive and inducing roles; neuronal NOS (nNOS)and endothelial NOS (eNOS) are responsible for neurotransmission and vasodil- atation while inducible NOS (iNOS) conducts mac- rophages and tumor-induced immunsupression.
Inducible NOS participates in the immune response to stress and inflammation, making it another attractive target for acute migraine therapy, Dr.
In vivo studies showed that melatonin treatment after MCAO significantly inhibited inducible NOS activity and attenuated expression of the inducible isoform, resulting in decreased total NOS activity and tissue nitrite levels.
This reaction is catalyzed by one of the three isoforms of NOS; neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (INOS).
The presence of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) as a source of NO in ovarian compartments and its function as a steroidogenesis regulator in GC has previously been demonstrated in mice (Janblonka-Shariff and Olson, 1997) and cattle (Basini et al.