independent assortment


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in·de·pen·dent as·sort·ment

the pattern of transmission of unlinked loci.

independent assortment

Independent assortmentclick for a larger image
Fig. 196 Independent assortment . Separation of chromosomes.

independent assortment

the random arrangement and separation of chromosomes during MEIOSIS, giving all possible combinations in equal frequency, unlike the situation with GENETIC LINKAGE. The process is important in understanding MENDELIAN GENETICS and explains the random distribution in the gametes of genes or nonhomologous chromosomes. For example, take two pairs of HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES in a DIPLOID (1) cell. During anaphase 1 there are two ways in which the chromosomes can become separated (see Fig. 196 ). Independent assortment of the chromosomes in the Fig. gives four types of possible gamete (1 + 3), (2 + 4), (1 + 4) and (2 + 3). In fact, the number of combinations is 2 to the power of the number of pairs of chromosome, 22 = 4 in the above example. A human with 23 pairs of chromosomes would produce 223 = 8 388 608 combinations by independent assortment alone.
References in periodicals archive ?
One of the processes that ultimately provides for new combinations of alleles in sexually-reproducing organisms is the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis 1.
Chi-squared tests will be performed to determine if the observed number of plants with a particular phenotype equals the expected for independent assortment indicating whether or not the gps loci is linked to that particular trait.
The two examples that come readily to mind are the Hardy-Weinberg law that applies to ratios of genes in a population under particular conditions and the law of independent assortment of chromosomes applied to the partitioning of chromosomes during meiosis.
The dihybrid cross was the way he established his second law of heredity: the principle of independent assortment.

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