prior probability

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Related to Improper distribution: Uninformative prior

pri·or prob·a·bil·i·ty

the best rational assessment of the probability of an outcome on the basis of established knowledge before the present experiment is performed. For instance, the prior probability of the daughter of a carrier of hemophilia being herself a carrier of hemophilia is 1/2. But if the daughter already has an affected son, the posterior probability that she is a carrier is unity, whereas if she has a normal child, the posterior probability that she is a carrier is 1/3. See: Bayes theorem.

prevalence

Epidemiology
(1) The number of people with a specific condition or attribute at a specified time divided by the total number of people in the population.
(2) The number or proportion of cases, events or conditions in a given population.
 
Statistics
A term defined in the context of a 4-cell diagnostic matrix (2 X 2 table) as the amount of people with a disease, X, relative to a population.

Veterinary medicine
(1) A clinical estimate of the probability that an animal has a given disease, based on current knowledge (e.g., by history of physical exam) before diagnostic testing.
(2) As defined in a population, the probability at a specific point in time that an animal randomly selected from a group will have a particular condition, which is equivalent to the proportion of individuals in the group that have the disease. Group prevalence is calculated by dividing the number of individuals in a group that have a disease by the total number of individuals in the group at risk of the disease. Prevalence is a good measure of the amount of a chronic, low-mortality disease in a population, but is not of the amount of short duration or high-fatality disease. Prevalence is often established by cross-sectional surveys.

prior probability

Decision making The likelihood that something may occur or be associated with an event based on its prevalence in a particular situation. See Medical mistake, Representative heurisic.

prior probability,

n the extent of belief held by a patient and practitioner in the ability of a specific therapeutic approach to produce a positive outcome before treatment begins. This level of belief should be taken into consideration by the patient and practitioner to make a decision as to whether the treatment should be used or to permit the therapy to continue.

probability

the basis of statistics. The relative frequency of occurrence of a specific event as the outcome of an experiment when the experiment is conducted randomly on very many occasions. The probability of the event occurring is the number of times it did occur divided by the number of times that it could have occurred. Defined as:$$\hbox{p}={\hbox{x}\over (\hbox{x+y})$$

where
p = probability, x = positive outcomes, y = negative outcomes.
prior probability
estimation of the probability that a particular phenomenon or character will appear before putting the patient to the test, e.g. testing the probable productivity of a patient by testing its forebears.
subjective probability
the measure of the assessor's belief in the probability of a proposition being correct.
References in periodicals archive ?
Previous elections were invalidated because of counting of unsigned ballots and improper distribution of fliers.
Unbalanced HVAC systems also cause an improper distribution of air.
Historically we haven't handled it as well as we should have," he said, citing as shortcomings improper distribution and the failure of frozen food clerks to maintain minimum cabinet temperatures.
Misuses of fund, including improper distribution to beneficiaries
A member of a member-managed LLC or manager of a manager-managed LLC can be personally liable if they consent to an improper distribution, and, in consenting to the distribution, fail to comply with the standards of conduct in [section] 605.
Existing law does not impose direct liability on recipients, but rather provides for the right to seek and obtain contribution from persons who knowingly receive an improper distribution.
The defendant in any such action may also implead a person who knowingly received an improper distribution and seek to enforce a right of contribution.
The lawsuit challenges what the Post-Gazette has described as proper news-gathering techniques as well as the improper distribution of Mylan's internal documents to others who then reviewed them without the complete set of facts.
The combination of WebCapture(TM) and Authentica's NetRecall(TM) Web content security software will enable users to securely capture, store and replay Web transactions in their entirety without the threat of compromised document integrity, unauthorized access or improper distribution.
The suit, which alleges abuse of authority, self-dealing, usurpation and diversion of corporate assets to the harm and detriment of minority shareholders and improper distribution of corporate assets, seeks, among other things, in excess of $1 billion in damages, dissolution and liquidation of Idealab and removal of all directors.
Steltor's lawsuit seeks compensation for AOL's and Netscape's illegal and improper distribution of Steltor's calendaring technology.
The Service is aware that it takes courage to say "no" to an officer-plan participant who is demanding improper distributions.