immobilized enzymes

immobilized enzymes

CELLS (alive or dead) or ENZYMES anchored to a solid support for use in BIOCONVERSIONS. A continuous flow of substrate over the immobilized cells or enzymes will enable conversion to the desired product. Immobilized enzymes or dead cells are used for simple one- or two-step bioconversions. However, where multiple steps are involved, living cells are needed. Immobilized systems are used in industry to make various products, such as high-FRUCTOSE syrups, ASPARTIC ACID and semi-synthetic ANTIBIOTICS.
References in periodicals archive ?
Reusability of Immobilized Enzymes Under MW Irradiation
The pH is an important factor that influences the hydrolytic activity of both free and immobilized enzymes, since it can change the performance of the support, the enzyme conformation and the enzymatic reaction.
North America dominated the global enzymes market in 2014, due to established industrial manufacturing base and large adoption of advanced enzymes such as immobilized enzymes in this region.
Equipments, microorganism and fed-batch fermentation, cell disruption to get enzymes of interest, preparation and storage of calcium alginate beads, enzyme assays for free and immobilized enzymes, protein and carbohydrate analysis were conducted as described in our previous papers [2,3].
The use of immobilized enzymes lowers production costs as these can be readily separated from reaction mixture and hence can be used repeatedly (Khan et al, 2010; Di Cosimo et al, 2013).
max] of the free and immobilized enzymes were determined by using lactose as substrate.
Compared with free enzymes, the immobilized enzymes can improve their activities because of their resistances toward temperature and pH variation.
The turnover numbers for glucose to fructose conversion for both unbound and immobilized CBD-TNXI were greater than the wild-type enzyme: kcat (min-1) was approximately 1000 3800 and 5800 at 80C compared to 1140 10350 and 7000 at 90C for the wild-type unbound and immobilized enzymes respectively.
Additionally, the immobilized enzymes are reusable, thus, renders cost effective [2-4].
Approaches such as protein engineering, multicopper oxidases, mediated enzymes, hierarchical materials architecture, and enzyme immobilization are covered, followed by characterization methods including analysis of immobilized enzymes, examination of the bio-nano interface, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray spectroscopy.
The alternative of using immobilized enzymes is advantageous because the enzyme could be recovered and usefully reused (Illanes, 2008; Hanefeld et al.
Immobilized enzymes have numerous biomedical and industrial applications which continued their development into an ever-expanding and multidisciplinary field during the last two decades [18,19].