Taking on Hanin's (2000b) call for holistic research entailing a shift from positive and negative emotions to a wider range of performance-related psychobiosocial states, this study proved the feasibility of extending the IZOF idiographic scaling to incorporate affect-related physiological symptom items.
At this point, the IZOF assumptions deserve verification with athletic samples, and other notions should be investigated.
1990) and multidimensional anxiety predictions (Annesi, 1997; Randle & Weinberg, 1997; Woodman, Albinson, & Hardy, 1997) have been less supportive of IZOF theory.
Emotions have become important in IZOF assessment, as optimal athlete performance is a function of both positive and negative affect (PNA).
IZOF theory has been examined primarily in the field where variables such as injuries, staleness, teammates' performance, and confidence based on prior performance efficacy are capable of altering performances.
Standard deviations from which the positive affect IZOF and negative affect IZOF ranges were created were based upon sample means and standard deviations for affect scores across experimental trials.
Each individual's IZOF was their obtained positive/negative affect score plus-and-minus their individualized one-half standard deviation.