Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
, and sleep paralysis during the rapid eye movement period of sleep.
Narcolepsy is an obstinate neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns.
The patient was a six-year-old girl whose parents reported all four cardinal symptoms of narcolepsy--paroxysmal sleep, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
, and sleep paralysis--but she was misdiagnosed as having atypical epilepsy (despite the absence of EEG evidence) and a variety of other diagnoses by several internists and neurologists at eight hospitals over a period of 10 months before the correct diagnosis was confirmed by conducting a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) and an overnight polysomnography (PSG).
are vivid, sometimes realistic, dream imagery that occurs just as a person is going to sleep.
22) Complex visual hallucinations in epilepsy are similar to hypnagogic hallucinations
but are rare.
While excessive daytime sleepiness generally persists throughout life, sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations
Narcolepsy is a primary sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with one or all of the following: cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations
and nocturnal sleep disturbance.
The classic tetrad of symptoms for narcolepsy includes excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations
Barnhill's patient swayed the author though the patient already has a psychotic illness (as well as many other possible contributors such as drug use), but even in sleep disorders hypnopompic or hypnagogic hallucinations
are neither exclusive to narcolepsy, nor particularly pathognomonic.
About 30%-60% of narcoleptic patients have sleep paralysis, a similar proportion have hypnagogic hallucinations
, which occur at sleep onset.
Symptoms of narcolepsy include excessive daytime sleepiness (even dropping off to sleep at any time, whether it be watching TV or driving a car), cataplexy (brief episodes of muscle weakness brought on by strong emotion), sleep paralysis (inability to move occurring at the moment of failing asleep), and hypnagogic hallucinations
(dreamlike images that occur at sleep onset).