polycystic ovary syndrome

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

 

Definition

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition characterized by the accumulation of numerous cysts (fluid-filled sacs) on the ovaries associated with high male hormone levels, chronic anovulation (absent ovulation), and other metabolic disturbances. Classic symptoms include excess facial and body hair, acne, obesity, irregular menstrual cycles, and infertility.

Description

PCOS, also called Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a group of symptoms caused by underlying hormonal and metabolic disturbances that affect about 6% of premenopausal women. PCOS symptoms appear as early as adolescence in the form of amenorrhea (missed periods), obesity, and hirsutism, the abnormal growth of body hair.
A disturbance in normal hormonal signals prevents ovulation in women with PCOS. Throughout the cycle, estrogen levels remain steady, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are high, and follide stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone levels are low. Since eggs are rarely or never released from their follicles, multiple ovarian cysts develop over time.
One of the most important characteristics of PCOS is hyperandrogenism, the excessive production of male hormones (androgens), particularly testosterone, by the ovaries. This accounts for the male hair-growth patterns and acne in women with PCOS. Hyperandrogenism has been linked with insulin resistance (the inability of the body to respond to insulin) and hyperinsulinemia (high blood insulin levels), both of which are common in PCOS.

Causes and symptoms

While the exact cause of PCOS is unknown, it runs in families, so the tendency to develop the syndrome may be inherited. The interaction of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism is believed to play a role in chronic anovulation in susceptible women.
The numbers and types of PCOS symptoms that appear vary among women. These include:
  • Hirsutism. Related to hyperandrogenism, this occurs in 70% of women.
  • Obesity. Approximately 40-70% of persons with PCOS are overweight.
  • Anovulation and menstrual disturbances. Anovulation appears as amenorrhea in 50% of women, and as heavy uterine bleeding in 30% of women. However, 20% of women with PCOS have normal menstruation.
  • Male-pattern hair loss. Some women with PCOS develop bald spots.
  • Infertility. Achieving pregnancy is difficult for many women with PCOS.
  • Polycystic ovaries. Most, but not all, women with PCOS have multiple cysts on their ovaries.
  • Skin discoloration. Some women with PCOS have dark patches on their skin.
  • Abnormal blood chemistry. Women with PCOS have high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol and triglycerides, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol.
  • Hyperinsulinemia. Some women with PCOS have high blood insulin levels, particularly if they are overweight.

Diagnosis

PCOS is diagnosed when a woman visits her doctor for treatment of symptoms such as hirsutism, obesity, menstrual irregularities, or infertility. Women with PCOS are treated by a gynecologist, a doctor who treats diseases of the female reproductive organs, or a reproductive endocrinologist, a specialist who treats diseases of the body's endocrine (hormones and glands) system and infertility.
PCOS can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to those of many other diseases or conditions, and because all of its symptoms may not occur. A doctor takes a complete medical history, including questions about menstruation and reproduction, and weight gain. Physical examination includes a pelvic examination to determine the size of the ovaries, and visual inspection of the skin for hirsutism, acne, or other changes. Blood tests are performed to measure levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estrogens, androgens, glucose, and insulin. A glucose-tolerance test may be administered. An ultrasound examination of the ovaries is performed to evaluate their size and shape. Most insurance plans cover the costs of diagnosing and treating PCOS and its related problems.

Treatment

PCOS treatment is aimed at correcting anovulation, restoring normal menstrual periods, improving fertility, eliminating hirsutism and acne, and preventing future complications related to high insulin and blood lipid (fat) levels. Treatment consists of weight loss, drugs or surgery, and hair removal, depending upon which symptoms are most bothersome, and whether a woman desires pregnancy.

Weight loss

In overweight women, weight loss (as little as 5%) through diet and exercise may correct hyperandrogenism, and restore normal ovulation and fertility. This is often tried first.

Drugs

HORMONAL DRUGS. Women who do not want to become pregnant and require contraception (spontaneous ovulation occurs occasionally among women with PCOS) are treated with low-dose oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). OCPs bring on regular menstrual periods and correct heavy uterine bleeding, as well as hirsutism, although improvement may not be seen for up to a year.
If an infertile woman desires to become pregnant, the first drug usually given to help induce ovulation is clomiphene citrate (Clomid), which results in pregnancy in about 70% of women but can cause multiple births. In the 20-25% of women who do not respond to clomiphene, other drugs that stimulate follicle development and induce ovulation, such as human menstrual gonadotropin (Pergonal) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), are given. However, these drugs have a lower pregnancy rate (less than 30%), a higher rate of multiple pregnancy (from 5-30%, depending on the dose of the drug), and a higher risk of medical problems. Women with PCOS have a high rate of miscarriage (30%), and may be treated with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide (Lupron) to reduce this risk.
Since women with PCOS do not have regular endometrial shedding due to high estrogen levels, they are at increased risk for overgrowth of this tissue and endometrial cancer. The drug medroxyprogesterone acetate, when taken for the first 10 days of each month, causes regular shedding of the endometrium, and reduces the risk of cancer. However, in most cases, oral contraceptive pills are used instead to bring about regular menstruation.
OTHER DRUGS. Another drug that helps to trigger ovulation is the steroid hormone dexamethasone. This drug acts by reducing the production of androgens by the adrenal glands.
The antiandrogen spironolactone (Aldactazide), which is usually given with an oral contraceptive, improves hirsutism and male-pattern baldness by reducing androgen production, but has no effect on fertility. The drug causes abnormal uterine bleeding and is linked with birth defects if taken during pregnancy. Another antiandrogen used to treat hirsutism, flutamide (Eulexin), can cause liver abnormalities, fatigue, mood swings, and loss of sexual desire. A drug used to reduce insulin levels, metformin (Glucophage), has shown promising results in women with PCOS hirsutism, but its effects on infertility and other PCOS symptoms are unknown. Drug treatment of hirsutism is long-term, and improvement may not be seen for up to a year or longer.
Acne is treated with antibiotics, antiandrogens, and other drugs such as retinoic acids (vitamin A compounds).

Surgical treatment

Surgical treatment of PCOS may be performed if drug treatment fails, but it is not common. A wedge resection, the surgical removal of part of the ovary and cysts through a laparoscope (an instrument inserted into the pelvis through a small incision), or an abdominal incision, reduces androgen production and restores ovulation. Although laparoscopic surgery is less likely to cause scar tissue formation than abdominal surgery, both are associated with the potential for scarring that may require additional surgery. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling is another type of laparoscopic surgery used to treat PCOS. The ovarian cysts are penetrated with a laser beam and some of the fluid is drained off. Between 50-65% of women may become pregnant after either type of surgery.
Some cases of severe hirsutism are treated by removal of the uterus (hysterectomy) and the ovaries (oopherectomy), followed by estrogen replacement therapy.

Other treatment

Hirsutism may be treated by hair removal techniques such as shaving, depilatories (chemicals that break down the structure of the hair), tweezing, waxing, electrolysis (destruction of the hair root by an electrical current), or the destruction of hair follicles by laser therapy. However, the treatments may have to be repeated.

Alternative treatment

PCOS can be addressed using many types of alternative treatment. The rebalancing of hormones is a primary focus of all these therapies. Acupuncture works on the body's energy flow according to the meridian system. Chinese herbs, such as gui zhi fu ling wan, can be effective. In naturopathic medicine, treatment focuses on helping the liver function more optimally in the horomonal balancing process. Dietary changes, including reducing animal products and fats, while increasing foods that nourish the liver such as carrots, dark green vegetables, lemons, and beets, can be beneficial. Essential fatty acids, including flax oil, evening primrose oil (Oenothera biennis), and black currant oil, act as anti-inflammatories and hormonal regulators. Western herbal medicine uses phytoestrogen and phytoprogesteronic herbs, such as blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) and false unicorn root (Chamaelirium luteum), as well as liver herbs, like dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum), to work toward hormonal balance. Supplementation with antioxidants, including zinc, and vitamins A, E, and C, is also recommended. Constitutional homeopathy can bring about a deep level of healing with the correct remedies.

Prognosis

With proper diagnosis and treatment, most PCOS symptoms can be adequately controlled or eliminated. Infertility can be corrected and pregnancy achieved in most women although, in some, hormonal disturbances and anovulation may recur. Women should be monitored for endometrial cancer. Because of the high rate of hyperinsulinemia seen in PCOS, women with the disorder should have their glucose levels checked regularly to watch for the development of diabetes. Blood pressure and cholesterol screening are also needed because these women also tend to have high levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which put them at risk for developing heart disease.

Prevention

There is no known way to prevent PCOS, but if diagnosed and treated early, risks for complications such as and heart disease and diabetes may be minimized. Weight control through diet and exercise stabilizes hormones and lowers insulin levels.

Key terms

Androgens — Male sex hormones produced by the adrenal glands and testes, the male sex glands.
Anovulation — The absence of ovulation.
Antiandrogens — Drugs that inhibit androgen production.
Estrogens — Hormones produced by the ovaries, the female sex glands.
Follicle stimulating hormone — A hormone that stimulates the growth and maturation of mature eggs in the ovary.
Gynecologist — A physician with specialized training in diseases and conditions of the female reproductive system.
Hirsutism — An abnormal growth of hair on the face and other parts of the body caused by an excess of androgens.
Hyperandrogenism — The excessive secretion of androgens.
Hyperinsulinemia — High blood insulin levels.
Insulin resistance — An inability to respond to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps the body to use glucose.
Laparoscope — An instrument inserted into the pelvis through a small incision.
Luteinizing hormone — A hormone that stimulates the secretion of sex hormones by the ovary.
Ovarian follicles — Structures found within the ovary that produce eggs.

Resources

Books

DeGroot, Leslie J., and J. Larry Jameson. Endocribnology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: W B Saunders, 2001.
Genazzani, A. R., and F. Petraglia. Advances in Gynecological Endocrinology. London: Parthenon Press, 2001.
Nader, Shala. Case Studies in Reproductive Endocrinology. London: Edward Arnold, 2000.
Speroff, Leon. Handbook for Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.
Spratt, Daniel, and Nanette Santoro. Endocrinology and Management of Reproduction and Fertility: Practical Diagnosis and Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2001.

Periodicals

Bracero, N., H. A. Zacur. "Polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperprolactinemia." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 77-84.
Calvo, R.M., et al. "Role of the follistatin gene in women with polycystic ovary syndrome." Fertility and Sterility 75, no. 5 (2001): 1020-102.
Dejager, S., et al. "Smaller LDL particle size in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to controls." Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford) 54, no. 4 (2001): 455-462.
Heinonen, S., et al. "Apolipoprotein E alleles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome." Fertility and Sterility 75, no. 5 (2001): 878-880.
Hoeger, K. "Obesity and weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 85-97.
Iuorno, M. J., and J. E. Nestler. "Insulin-lowering drugs in polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 153-164.
Kalro, B. N., T. L. Loucks, and S. L. Berga. "Neuromodulation in polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 35-62.
Legro, R. S. "Diabetes prevalence and risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 99-109.
Lewis, V. "Polycystic ovary syndrome. A diagnostic challenge." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1: 1-20.
Moran, C., and R. Azziz. "The role of the adrenal cortex in polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 63-75.
Padmanabhan, V., et al. "Dynamics of bioactive follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: effects of estradiol and progesterone." Fertility and Sterility 75, no. 5 (2001): 881-888.
Phipps, W. R. "Polycystic ovary syndrome and ovulation induction." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 165-182.
Talbott, E. O., et al. "Cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 111-133.
Zacur, H. A. "Polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperandrogenism, and insulin resistance." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 21-33.
Zborowski, J. V., et al. "Polycystic ovary syndrome, androgen excess, and the impact on bone." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 135-151.

Organizations

American Academy of Family Physicians. 11400 Tomahawk Creek Parkway, Leawood, KS 66211-2672. (913) 906-6000. http://www.aafp.org/. fp@aafp.org.
American Medical Association. 515 N. State Street, Chicago, IL 60610. (312) 464-5000. http://www.amaassn.org/.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Association. PO Box 80517, Portlabd, OR 97280. (877) 775-7267. http://www.pcosupport.org/. info@pcossupport.org.

Other

American Academy of Family Physicians. http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000901/1079.html.
Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati. 〈http://uc.edu/∼gartsips/polycyst.htm〉.
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. 〈http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/peds/pidl/adolesc/polcysov.htm〉.

polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS),

an endocrine disturbance characterized by anovulation, amenorrhea, hirsutism, and infertility. It is caused by increased levels of testosterone, estrogen, and luteinizing hormone (LH) and decreased secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The increased level of LH associated with this disorder may be the result of an increased sensitivity of the pituitary to stimulation by releasing hormone or of excessive stimulation by the adrenal gland. It may also be associated with a variety of problems in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, with extragonadal sources of androgens, or with androgen-producing tumors. This condition is transmitted as an X-linked dominant or autosomal-dominant trait. The depressed but continuous production of FSH associated with this disorder causes continuous partial development of ovarian follicles. Numerous follicular cysts, 2 to 6 mm in diameter, may develop. The affected ovary commonly doubles in size and is invested by a smooth pearly white capsule. The increased level of estrogen associated with this abnormality raises the risk of cancers of the breast and endometrium. Depending on the severity of symptoms and the patient's desire to become pregnant, treatment involves suppression of hormonal stimulation of the ovary, usually by use of female hormones or resection of part of one or both ovaries. Also called hyperandrogenic chronic anovulations, Stein-Leventhal syndrome.

polycystic

 [pol″e-sis´tik]
containing many cysts.
polycystic kidney disease either of two unrelated hereditary diseases in which there is massive enlargement of the kidney with cyst formation. It occurs in two forms, distinguished by age of onset and other characteristics.

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, formerly called adult polycystic kidney disease) is the most common type of cystic disease of the kidneys. It is usually manifested during the third decade of life. Renal failure may appear by the fifth decade, with terminal failure occurring in the next ten years, although in some cases it never appears. Although there is rarely any liver dysfunction accompanying this disorder, cyst formation in the liver does occur.

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), formerly called childhood polycystic kidney disease, is diagnosed at birth or in the first ten years of life and is much less common than the autosomal dominant form. Both the kidney and the liver are involved, causing renal failure and liver failure with portal hypertension. Characteristic symptoms early in the process include pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, kidney stones, and obstructive uropathy with anuria.

Treatment of both types of polycystic kidney disease is largely symptomatic. Renal dialysis and kidney transplantation during end-stage renal disease can prolong life but offer no cure. Families with histories of polycystic kidney disease require genetic counseling and may need help in coping with the prospect of future offspring afflicted with the disease.
polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) a clinical symptom complex associated with polycystic ovaries and characterized by oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, anovulation (hence infertility), and hirsutism. Both hyperestrogenism (from peripheral conversion of androgen) and hyperandrogenism are present. Excretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and 17-ketosteroids is normal, but infertility is usually persistent, requiring treatment with wedge resection, clomiphene, or gonadotropins. Called also Stein-Leventhal syndrome.
polycystic renal disease polycystic kidney disease.

pol·y·cys·tic o·va·ry syn·drome (PCOS),

[MIM*184700]
a condition commonly characterized by hirsutism, obesity, menstrual abnormalities, infertility, insulin resistance, and enlarged ovaries; commonly associated with insulin resistance and thought to reflect excessive androgen secretion of ovarian origin. Women with PCOS are frequently at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and breast cancer.

pol·y·cys·tic o·va·ry syn·drome

(pol'ē-sis'tik ō'văr-ē sin'drōm)
A condition commonly characterized by signs of masculinization such as hirsutism, as well as obesity, menstrual abnormalities, infertility, and enlarged ovaries; thought to reflect excessive androgen secretion of ovarian origin.
See also: polycystic ovary

Stein,

Irving Freiler, Sr., U.S. gynecologist, 1887–.
Stein-Leventhal syndrome - a condition commonly characterized by hirsutism, obesity, menstrual abnormalities, infertility, and enlarged ovaries. Synonym(s): polycystic ovary syndrome