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polycystic ovary syndrome

(redirected from Hyperandrogenic chronic anovulation)
   Also found in: Dictionary/thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia 0.01 sec.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome 

Definition

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition characterized by the accumulation of numerous cysts (fluid-filled sacs) on the ovaries associated with high male hormone levels, chronic anovulation (absent ovulation), and other metabolic disturbances. Classic symptoms include excess facial and body hair, acne, obesity, irregular menstrual cycles, and infertility.

Description

PCOS, also called Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a group of symptoms caused by underlying hormonal and metabolic disturbances that affect about 6% of premenopausal women. PCOS symptoms appear as early as adolescence in the form of amenorrhea (missed periods), obesity, and hirsutism, the abnormal growth of body hair.
A disturbance in normal hormonal signals prevents ovulation in women with PCOS. Throughout the cycle, estrogen levels remain steady, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are high, and follide stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone levels are low. Since eggs are rarely or never released from their follicles, multiple ovarian cysts develop over time.
One of the most important characteristics of PCOS is hyperandrogenism, the excessive production of male hormones (androgens), particularly testosterone, by the ovaries. This accounts for the male hair-growth patterns and acne in women with PCOS. Hyperandrogenism has been linked with insulin resistance (the inability of the body to respond to insulin) and hyperinsulinemia (high blood insulin levels), both of which are common in PCOS.

Causes and symptoms

While the exact cause of PCOS is unknown, it runs in families, so the tendency to develop the syndrome may be inherited. The interaction of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism is believed to play a role in chronic anovulation in susceptible women.
The numbers and types of PCOS symptoms that appear vary among women. These include:
  • Hirsutism. Related to hyperandrogenism, this occurs in 70% of women.
  • Obesity. Approximately 40-70% of persons with PCOS are overweight.
  • Anovulation and menstrual disturbances. Anovulation appears as amenorrhea in 50% of women, and as heavy uterine bleeding in 30% of women. However, 20% of women with PCOS have normal menstruation.
  • Male-pattern hair loss. Some women with PCOS develop bald spots.
  • Infertility. Achieving pregnancy is difficult for many women with PCOS.
  • Polycystic ovaries. Most, but not all, women with PCOS have multiple cysts on their ovaries.
  • Skin discoloration. Some women with PCOS have dark patches on their skin.
  • Abnormal blood chemistry. Women with PCOS have high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol and triglycerides, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol.
  • Hyperinsulinemia. Some women with PCOS have high blood insulin levels, particularly if they are overweight.

Diagnosis

PCOS is diagnosed when a woman visits her doctor for treatment of symptoms such as hirsutism, obesity, menstrual irregularities, or infertility. Women with PCOS are treated by a gynecologist, a doctor who treats diseases of the female reproductive organs, or a reproductive endocrinologist, a specialist who treats diseases of the body's endocrine (hormones and glands) system and infertility.
PCOS can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to those of many other diseases or conditions, and because all of its symptoms may not occur. A doctor takes a complete medical history, including questions about menstruation and reproduction, and weight gain. Physical examination includes a pelvic examination to determine the size of the ovaries, and visual inspection of the skin for hirsutism, acne, or other changes. Blood tests are performed to measure levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estrogens, androgens, glucose, and insulin. A glucose-tolerance test may be administered. An ultrasound examination of the ovaries is performed to evaluate their size and shape. Most insurance plans cover the costs of diagnosing and treating PCOS and its related problems.

Treatment

PCOS treatment is aimed at correcting anovulation, restoring normal menstrual periods, improving fertility, eliminating hirsutism and acne, and preventing future complications related to high insulin and blood lipid (fat) levels. Treatment consists of weight loss, drugs or surgery, and hair removal, depending upon which symptoms are most bothersome, and whether a woman desires pregnancy.

Weight loss

In overweight women, weight loss (as little as 5%) through diet and exercise may correct hyperandrogenism, and restore normal ovulation and fertility. This is often tried first.

Drugs

HORMONAL DRUGS. Women who do not want to become pregnant and require contraception (spontaneous ovulation occurs occasionally among women with PCOS) are treated with low-dose oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). OCPs bring on regular menstrual periods and correct heavy uterine bleeding, as well as hirsutism, although improvement may not be seen for up to a year.
If an infertile woman desires to become pregnant, the first drug usually given to help induce ovulation is clomiphene citrate (Clomid), which results in pregnancy in about 70% of women but can cause multiple births. In the 20-25% of women who do not respond to clomiphene, other drugs that stimulate follicle development and induce ovulation, such as human menstrual gonadotropin (Pergonal) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), are given. However, these drugs have a lower pregnancy rate (less than 30%), a higher rate of multiple pregnancy (from 5-30%, depending on the dose of the drug), and a higher risk of medical problems. Women with PCOS have a high rate of miscarriage (30%), and may be treated with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide (Lupron) to reduce this risk.
Since women with PCOS do not have regular endometrial shedding due to high estrogen levels, they are at increased risk for overgrowth of this tissue and endometrial cancer. The drug medroxyprogesterone acetate, when taken for the first 10 days of each month, causes regular shedding of the endometrium, and reduces the risk of cancer. However, in most cases, oral contraceptive pills are used instead to bring about regular menstruation.
OTHER DRUGS. Another drug that helps to trigger ovulation is the steroid hormone dexamethasone. This drug acts by reducing the production of androgens by the adrenal glands.
The antiandrogen spironolactone (Aldactazide), which is usually given with an oral contraceptive, improves hirsutism and male-pattern baldness by reducing androgen production, but has no effect on fertility. The drug causes abnormal uterine bleeding and is linked with birth defects if taken during pregnancy. Another antiandrogen used to treat hirsutism, flutamide (Eulexin), can cause liver abnormalities, fatigue, mood swings, and loss of sexual desire. A drug used to reduce insulin levels, metformin (Glucophage), has shown promising results in women with PCOS hirsutism, but its effects on infertility and other PCOS symptoms are unknown. Drug treatment of hirsutism is long-term, and improvement may not be seen for up to a year or longer.
Acne is treated with antibiotics, antiandrogens, and other drugs such as retinoic acids (vitamin A compounds).

Surgical treatment

Surgical treatment of PCOS may be performed if drug treatment fails, but it is not common. A wedge resection, the surgical removal of part of the ovary and cysts through a laparoscope (an instrument inserted into the pelvis through a small incision), or an abdominal incision, reduces androgen production and restores ovulation. Although laparoscopic surgery is less likely to cause scar tissue formation than abdominal surgery, both are associated with the potential for scarring that may require additional surgery. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling is another type of laparoscopic surgery used to treat PCOS. The ovarian cysts are penetrated with a laser beam and some of the fluid is drained off. Between 50-65% of women may become pregnant after either type of surgery.
Some cases of severe hirsutism are treated by removal of the uterus (hysterectomy) and the ovaries (oopherectomy), followed by estrogen replacement therapy.

Other treatment

Hirsutism may be treated by hair removal techniques such as shaving, depilatories (chemicals that break down the structure of the hair), tweezing, waxing, electrolysis (destruction of the hair root by an electrical current), or the destruction of hair follicles by laser therapy. However, the treatments may have to be repeated.

Alternative treatment

PCOS can be addressed using many types of alternative treatment. The rebalancing of hormones is a primary focus of all these therapies. Acupuncture works on the body's energy flow according to the meridian system. Chinese herbs, such as gui zhi fu ling wan, can be effective. In naturopathic medicine, treatment focuses on helping the liver function more optimally in the horomonal balancing process. Dietary changes, including reducing animal products and fats, while increasing foods that nourish the liver such as carrots, dark green vegetables, lemons, and beets, can be beneficial. Essential fatty acids, including flax oil, evening primrose oil (Oenothera biennis), and black currant oil, act as anti-inflammatories and hormonal regulators. Western herbal medicine uses phytoestrogen and phytoprogesteronic herbs, such as blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) and false unicorn root (Chamaelirium luteum), as well as liver herbs, like dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum), to work toward hormonal balance. Supplementation with antioxidants, including zinc, and vitamins A, E, and C, is also recommended. Constitutional homeopathy can bring about a deep level of healing with the correct remedies.

Prognosis

With proper diagnosis and treatment, most PCOS symptoms can be adequately controlled or eliminated. Infertility can be corrected and pregnancy achieved in most women although, in some, hormonal disturbances and anovulation may recur. Women should be monitored for endometrial cancer. Because of the high rate of hyperinsulinemia seen in PCOS, women with the disorder should have their glucose levels checked regularly to watch for the development of diabetes. Blood pressure and cholesterol screening are also needed because these women also tend to have high levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which put them at risk for developing heart disease.

Prevention

There is no known way to prevent PCOS, but if diagnosed and treated early, risks for complications such as and heart disease and diabetes may be minimized. Weight control through diet and exercise stabilizes hormones and lowers insulin levels.

Key terms

Androgens — Male sex hormones produced by the adrenal glands and testes, the male sex glands.
Anovulation — The absence of ovulation.
Antiandrogens — Drugs that inhibit androgen production.
Estrogens — Hormones produced by the ovaries, the female sex glands.
Follicle stimulating hormone — A hormone that stimulates the growth and maturation of mature eggs in the ovary.
Gynecologist — A physician with specialized training in diseases and conditions of the female reproductive system.
Hirsutism — An abnormal growth of hair on the face and other parts of the body caused by an excess of androgens.
Hyperandrogenism — The excessive secretion of androgens.
Hyperinsulinemia — High blood insulin levels.
Insulin resistance — An inability to respond to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps the body to use glucose.
Laparoscope — An instrument inserted into the pelvis through a small incision.
Luteinizing hormone — A hormone that stimulates the secretion of sex hormones by the ovary.
Ovarian follicles — Structures found within the ovary that produce eggs.

Resources

Books

DeGroot, Leslie J., and J. Larry Jameson. Endocribnology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: W B Saunders, 2001.
Genazzani, A. R., and F. Petraglia. Advances in Gynecological Endocrinology. London: Parthenon Press, 2001.
Nader, Shala. Case Studies in Reproductive Endocrinology. London: Edward Arnold, 2000.
Speroff, Leon. Handbook for Clinical Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.
Spratt, Daniel, and Nanette Santoro. Endocrinology and Management of Reproduction and Fertility: Practical Diagnosis and Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2001.

Periodicals

Bracero, N., H. A. Zacur. "Polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperprolactinemia." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 77-84.
Calvo, R.M., et al. "Role of the follistatin gene in women with polycystic ovary syndrome." Fertility and Sterility 75, no. 5 (2001): 1020-102.
Dejager, S., et al. "Smaller LDL particle size in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to controls." Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford) 54, no. 4 (2001): 455-462.
Heinonen, S., et al. "Apolipoprotein E alleles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome." Fertility and Sterility 75, no. 5 (2001): 878-880.
Hoeger, K. "Obesity and weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 85-97.
Iuorno, M. J., and J. E. Nestler. "Insulin-lowering drugs in polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 153-164.
Kalro, B. N., T. L. Loucks, and S. L. Berga. "Neuromodulation in polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 35-62.
Legro, R. S. "Diabetes prevalence and risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 99-109.
Lewis, V. "Polycystic ovary syndrome. A diagnostic challenge." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1: 1-20.
Moran, C., and R. Azziz. "The role of the adrenal cortex in polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 63-75.
Padmanabhan, V., et al. "Dynamics of bioactive follicle-stimulating hormone secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: effects of estradiol and progesterone." Fertility and Sterility 75, no. 5 (2001): 881-888.
Phipps, W. R. "Polycystic ovary syndrome and ovulation induction." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 165-182.
Talbott, E. O., et al. "Cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 111-133.
Zacur, H. A. "Polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperandrogenism, and insulin resistance." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 21-33.
Zborowski, J. V., et al. "Polycystic ovary syndrome, androgen excess, and the impact on bone." Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 28, no. 1 (2001): 135-151.

Organizations

American Academy of Family Physicians. 11400 Tomahawk Creek Parkway, Leawood, KS 66211-2672. (913) 906-6000. http://www.aafp.org/. fp@aafp.org.
American Medical Association. 515 N. State Street, Chicago, IL 60610. (312) 464-5000. http://www.amaassn.org/.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Association. PO Box 80517, Portlabd, OR 97280. (877) 775-7267. http://www.pcosupport.org/. info@pcossupport.org.

Other

American Academy of Family Physicians. http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000901/1079.html.
Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati. 〈http://uc.edu/∼gartsips/polycyst.htm〉.
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. 〈http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/peds/pidl/adolesc/polcysov.htm〉.

syndrome /syn·drome/ (sin´drōm) a set of symptoms occurring together; the sum of signs of any morbid state; a symptom complex. See also entries under disease.
Aarskog syndrome , Aarskog-Scott syndrome a hereditary X-linked condition characterized by ocular hypertelorism, anteverted nostrils, broad upper lip, peculiar scrotal “shawl” above the penis, and small hands.
acquired immune deficiency syndrome , acquired immunodeficiency syndrome an epidemic, transmissible retroviral disease caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, manifested in severe cases as profound depression of cell-mediated immunity, and affecting certain recognized risk groups. Diagnosis is by the presence of a disease indicative of a defect in cell-mediated immunity (e.g., life-threatening opportunistic infection) in the absence of any known causes of underlying immunodeficiency or of any other host defense defects reported to be associated with that disease (e.g., iatrogenic immunosuppression).
acute coronary syndrome  a classification encompassing clinical presentations ranging from unstable angina through non, sometimes also including Q wave infarction.
acute radiation syndrome  a syndrome caused by exposure to a whole body dose of over 1 gray of ionizing radiation; symptoms, whose severity and time of onset depend on the size of the dose, include erythema, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, petechiae, bleeding from the mucous membranes, hematologic changes, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, epilation, hypotension, tachycardia, and dehydration; death may occur within hours or weeks of exposure.
acute respiratory distress syndrome  (ARDS) fulminant pulmonary interstitial and alveolar edema, which usually develops within a few days after the initiating trauma, thought to result from alveolar injury that has led to increased capillary permeability.
acute retinal necrosis syndrome  necrotizing retinitis with uveitis and other retinal pathology, severe loss of vision, and often retinal detachment; of viral etiology.
Adams-Stokes syndrome  episodic cardiac arrest and syncope due to failure of normal and escape pacemakers, with or without ventricular fibrillation; the principal manifestation of severe heart attack.
addisonian syndrome  the complex of symptoms resulting from adrenocortical insufficiency; see Addison's disease, under disease.
Adie's syndrome  tonic pupil associated with absence or diminution of certain tendon reflexes.
adrenogenital syndrome  a group of syndromes in which inappropriate virilism or feminization results from disorders of adrenal function that also affect gonadal steroidogenesis.
adult respiratory distress syndrome  (ARDS) acute respiratory distress s.
AEC syndrome  Hay-Wells s.
afferent loop syndrome  chronic partial obstruction of the proximal loop (duodenum and jejunum) after gastrojejunostomy, resulting in duodenal distention, pain, and nausea following ingestion of food.
Ahumada-del Castillo syndrome  galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome with low gonadotropin secretion.
akinetic-rigid syndrome  muscular rigidity with varying degrees of slowness of movement; seen in parkinsonism and disorders of the basal ganglia.
Alagille syndrome  inherited neonatal jaundice, cholestasis with peripheral pulmonic stenosis, unusual facies, and ocular, vertebral, and nervous system abnormalities, due to paucity or absence of intrahepatic bile ducts.
Albright's syndrome , Albright-McCune-Sternberg syndrome polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, patchy dermal pigmentation, and endocrine dysfunction.
Aldrich's syndrome  Wiskott-Aldrich s.
Allgrove's syndrome  inherited glucocorticoid deficiency with achalasia and alacrima.
Alport's syndrome  a hereditary disorder marked by progressive nerve deafness, progressive pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis, and occasionally ocular defects.
Alström syndrome  a hereditary syndrome of retinitis pigmentosa with nystagmus and early loss of central vision, deafness, obesity, and diabetes mellitus.
amnestic syndrome  a mental disorder characterized by impairment of memory occurring in a normal state of consciousness; the most common cause is thiamine deficiency associated with alcohol abuse.
amniotic band syndrome  see under sequence.
Angelman's syndrome  happy puppet s.
angular gyrus syndrome  a syndrome resulting from an infarction or other lesion of the angular gyrus on the dominant side, often characterized by alexia or agraphia.
ankyloblepharon–ectodermal dysplasia–clefting syndrome  Hay-Wells s.
anorexia-cachexia syndrome  a systemic response to cancer occurring as a result of a poorly understood relationship between anorexia and cachexia, manifested by malnutrition, weight loss, muscular weakness, acidosis, and toxemia.
anterior cord syndrome  anterior spinal artery s.
anterior interosseous syndrome  a complex of symptoms caused by a lesion of the anterior interosseous nerve, usually resulting from a fracture or laceration.
anterior spinal artery syndrome  localized injury to the anterior portion of the spinal cord, characterized by complete paralysis and hypalgesia and hypesthesia to the level of the lesion, but with relative preservation of posterior column sensations of touch, position, and vibration.
Apert's syndrome  acrocephalosyndactyly, type I; an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acrocephaly and syndactyly, often with other skeletal deformities and mental retardation.
Asherman's syndrome  persistent amenorrhea and secondary sterility due to intrauterine adhesions and synechiae, usually as a result of uterine curettage.
Asperger's syndrome  a pervasive developmental disorder resembling autistic disorder, being characterized by severe impairment of social interactions and by restricted interests and behaviors; however, patients are not delayed in development of language, cognitive function, and self-help skills.
Barrett's syndrome  peptic ulcer of the lower esophagus, often with stricture, due to the presence of columnar-lined epithelium, which may contain functional mucous cells, parietal cells, or chief cells, in the esophagus instead of normal squamous cell epithelium.
Bartter syndrome  a hereditary form of hyperaldosteronism secondary to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular cells, with normal blood pressure and hypokalemic alkalosis in the absence of edema, increased concentration of renin, angiotensin II, and bradykinin; usually occurring in children.
basal cell nevus syndrome  an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by the development in early life of numerous basal cell carcinomas, in association with abnormalities of the skin, bone, nervous system, eyes, and reproductive tract.
Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome  abetalipoproteinemia.
battered-child syndrome  multiple traumatic lesions of the bones and soft tissues of children, often accompanied by subdural hematomas, willfully inflicted by an adult.
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome  an inherited disorder characterized by exomphalos, macroglossia, and gigantism, often associated with visceromegaly, adrenocortical cytomegaly, and dysplasia of the renal medulla.
Behçet's syndrome  severe uveitis and retinal vasculitis, optic atrophy, and aphtha-like lesions of the mouth and genitalia, often with other signs and symptoms suggesting a diffuse vasculitis; it most often affects young males.
Bernard-Soulier syndrome  a hereditary coagulation disorder marked by mild thrombocytopenia, giant and morphologically abnormal platelets, hemorrhagic tendency, prolonged bleeding time, and purpura.
Bing-Neel syndrome  the central nervous system manifestations of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, possibly including encephalopathy, hemorrhage, stroke, convulsions, delirium, and coma.
Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome  an inherited disorder of proliferation of ectodermal and mesodermal components of the pilar system, occurring as multiple trichodiscomas, acrochordons, and fibrofolliculomas on the head, chest, back, and upper limbs.
Blackfan-Diamond syndrome  congenital hypoplastic anemia.
blue toe syndrome  skin necrosis and ischemic gangrene manifest as a blue color of the toes, resulting from arterial occlusion, usually caused by emboli, thrombi, or injury.
Boerhaave's syndrome  spontaneous rupture of the esophagus.
Börjeson's syndrome , Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome a hereditary syndrome, transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait, characterized by severe mental retardation, epilepsy, hypogonadism, hypometabolism, marked obesity, swelling of the subcutaneous tissues of the face, and large ears.
bowel bypass syndrome  a syndrome of dermatosis and arthritis occurring some time after jejunoileal bypass, probably caused by immune reponse to bacterial overgrowth in the bypassed bowel.
Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome  a progressive syndrome of postural hypotension without tachycardia but with visual disturbances, impotence, hypohidrosis, lowered metabolic rate, dizziness, syncope, and slow pulse; due to impaired peripheral vasoconstriction.
bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome , brady-tachy syndrome a clinical manifestation of the sick sinus syndrome characterized by alternating periods of bradycardia and tachycardia.
Brown-Séquard syndrome  ipsilateral paralysis and loss of discriminatory and joint sensation, and contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation; due to damage to one half of the spinal cord.
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome  an inherited syndrome of progressive bulbar palsy with any of several cranial nerve disorders.
Budd-Chiari syndrome  symptomatic obstruction or occlusion of the hepatic veins, causing hepatomegaly, abdominal pain and tenderness, intractable ascites, mild jaundice, and eventually portal hypertension and liver failure.
Caffey's syndrome , Caffey-Silverman syndrome infantile cortical hyperostosis.
Canada-Cronkhite syndrome  Cronkhite-Canada s.
capillary leak syndrome  extravasation of plasma fluid and proteins into the extravascular space, resulting in sometimes fatal hypotension and reduced organ perfusion; an adverse effect of interleukin-2 therapy.
carcinoid syndrome  a symptom complex associated with carcinoid tumors, marked by attacks of cyanotic flushing of the skin and watery diarrhea, bronchoconstrictive attacks, sudden drops in blood pressure, edema, and ascites. Symptoms are caused by tumor secretion of serotonin, prostaglandins, and other biologically active substances.
carotid sinus syndrome  syncope sometimes associated with convulsions due to overactivity of the carotid sinus reflex when pressure is applied to one or both carotid sinuses.
carpal tunnel syndrome  pain and burning or tingling paresthesias in the fingers and hand, sometimes extending to the elbow, due to compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel.
Median nerve entrapped in carpal tunnel in carpal tunnel syndrome.
Carpenter's syndrome  acrocephalopolysyndactyly, type II; an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by acrocephaly, polysyndactyly, brachydactyly, mild obesity, mental retardation, hypogonadism, and other anomalies.
central cord syndrome  injury to the central part of the cervical spinal cord resulting in disproportionately more weakness or paralysis in the upper limbs than in the lower; pathological change is caused by hemorrhage or edema.
cerebrocostomandibular syndrome  an inherited syndrome of severe micrognathia and costovertebral abnormalities, with palatal defects, prenatal and postnatal growth deficiencies, and mental retardation.
cerebrohepatorenal syndrome  a hereditary disorder, transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, characterized by craniofacial abnormalities, hypotonia, hepatomegaly, polycystic kidneys, jaundice, and death in early infancy.
cervical rib syndrome  thoracic outlet syndrome caused by a cervical rib.
Cestan's syndrome , Cestan-Chenais syndrome an association of contralateral hemiplegia, contralateral hemianesthesia, ipsilateral lateropulsion and hemiasynergia, Horner's syndrome, and ipsilateral laryngoplegia, due to scattered lesions of the pyramid, sensory tract, inferior cerebellar peduncle, nucleus ambiguus, and oculopupillary center.
Charcot-Marie syndrome  Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
CHARGE syndrome  see under association.
Chédiak-Higashi syndrome  a lethal, progressive, autosomal recessive, systemic disorder associated with oculocutaneous albinism, massive leukocyte inclusions (giant lysosomes), histiocytic infiltration of multiple body organs, development of pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, recurrent or persistent bacterial infections, and a possible predisposition to development of malignant lymphoma.
Chinese restaurant syndrome  transient arterial dilatation due to ingestion of monosodium glutamate, which is sometimes used liberally in seasoning Chinese food, marked by throbbing head, lightheadedness, tightness of the jaw, neck, and shoulders, and backache.
Chotzen's syndrome  acrocephalosyndactyly, type III; an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acrocephaly and syndactyly in which the latter is mild and by hypertelorism, ptosis, and sometimes mental retardation.
Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome  anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.
chronic fatigue syndrome  persistent debilitating fatigue of recent onset, with greatly reduced physical activity and some combination of muscle weakness, sore throat, mild fever, tender lymph nodes, headaches, and depression, not attributable to any other known causes; it is of controversial etiology.
Churg-Strauss syndrome  allergic granulomatous angiitis; a systemic form of necrotizing vasculitis in which there is prominent lung involvement.
chylomicronemia syndrome  familial hyperchylomicronemia.
Coffin-Lowry syndrome  an X-linked syndrome of incapability of speech, severe mental deficiency, and muscle, ligament, and skeletal abnormalities.
Coffin-Siris syndrome  hypoplasia of the fifth fingers and toenails associated with growth and mental deficiencies, coarse facies, mild microcephaly, hypotonia, lax joints, and mild hirsutism.
compartmental syndrome  a condition in which increased tissue pressure in a confined anatomic space causes decreased blood flow leading to ischemia and dysfunction of contained myoneural elements, marked by pain, muscle weakness, sensory loss, and palpable tenseness in the involved compartment; ischemia can lead to necrosis resulting in permanent impairment of function.
congenital rubella syndrome  transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella, usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection, resulting in various developmental anomalies in the newborn infant.
Conn's syndrome  primary aldosteronism.
cri du chat syndrome  a hereditary congenital syndrome characterized by hypertelorism, microcephaly, severe mental deficiency, and a plaintive catlike cry, due to deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5.
Crigler-Najjar syndrome  an autosomal recessive form of nonhemolytic jaundice due to absence of the hepatic enzyme glucuronide transferase, marked by excessive amounts of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood, kernicterus, and severe central nervous system disorders.
syndrome of crocodile tears  spontaneous lacrimation occurring parallel with the normal salivation of eating, and associated with facial paralysis; it seems to be due to straying of regenerating nerve fibers, some of those destined for the salivary glands going to the lacrimal glands.
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome  familial polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract associated with ectodermal defects such as alopecia and onychodystrophy.
Crow-Fukase syndrome  POEMS s.
crush syndrome  the edema, oliguria, and other symptoms of renal failure that follow crushing of a part, especially a large muscle mass; see lower nephron nephrosis, under nephrosis.
Cruveilhier-Baumgarten syndrome  cirrhosis with portal hypertension associated with congenital patency of the umbilical and paraumbilical veins.
Cushing's syndrome  a condition, more commonly seen in females, due to hyperadrenocorticism resulting from neoplasms of the adrenal cortex or anterior lobe of the pituitary; or to prolonged excessive intake of glucocorticoids for therapeutic purposes (iatrogenic Cushing's s. or Cushing's s. medicamentosus). The symptoms may include adiposity of the face, neck, and trunk, kyphosis caused by softening of the spine, amenorrhea, hypertrichosis (in females), impotence (in males), dusky complexion with purple markings, hypertension, polycythemia, pain in the abdomen and back, and muscular weakness.
Da Costa syndrome  neurocirculatory asthenia.
Dandy-Walker syndrome  congenital hydrocephalus due to obstruction of the foramina of Magendie and Luschka.
Dejean's syndrome  orbital floor s.
de Lange's syndrome  a congenital syndrome of mental retardation, short stature (Amsterdam dwarf), flat spadelike hands, and other anomalies.
dialysis dysequilibrium syndrome  symptoms such as headache, nausea, muscle cramps, nervous irritability, drowsiness, and convulsions during or after overly rapid hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, resulting from an osmotic shift of water into the brain.
disconnection syndrome  any neurologic disorder caused by an interruption in impulse transmission along cerebral fiber pathways.
Down syndrome  mongoloid features, short phalanges, widened space between the first and second toes and fingers, and moderate to severe mental retardation; associated with a chromosomal abnormality, usually trisomy of chromosome 21.
Drash syndrome  an inherited syndrome of Wilms' tumor with glomerulopathy and male pseudohermaphroditism.
Dubin-Johnson syndrome  hereditary chronic nonhemolytic jaundice thought to be due to defective excretion of conjugated bilirubin and certain other organic anions by the liver; a brown, coarsely granular pigment in hepatic cells is pathognomonic.
dumping syndrome  nausea, weakness, sweating, palpitation, syncope, often a sensation of warmth, and sometimes diarrhea, occurring after ingestion of food in patients who have undergone partial gastrectomy.
dyscontrol syndrome  a pattern of episodic abnormal and often violent and uncontrollable social behavior with little or no provocation; it may have an organic cause or be associated with abuse of a psychoactive substance.
dysmaturity syndrome  postmaturity s.
Eaton-Lambert syndrome  a myasthenia-like syndrome in which the weakness usually affects the limbs and ocular and bulbar muscles are spared; often associated with oat-cell carcinoma of the lung.
EEC syndrome  ectrodactyly–ectodermal dysplasia–clefting s.; an inherited congenital syndrome involving both ectodermal and mesodermal tissues, characterized by ectodermal dysplasia with hypopigmentation of skin and hair, and other hair, nail, tooth, lip, and palate abnormalities.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome  a group of inherited disorders of connective tissue, varying in clinical and biochemical evidence, in mode of inheritance, and in severity from mild to lethal; major manifestations include hyperextensible skin and joints, easy bruisability, friability of tissues, bleeding, poor wound healing, subcutaneous nodules, and cardiovascular, orthopedic, intestinal, and ocular defects.
Eisenmenger's syndrome  ventricular septal defect with pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis due to right-to-left (reversed) shunt of blood. Sometimes defined as pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary vascular disease) and cyanosis with the shunt being at the atrial, ventricular, or great vessel area.
EMG syndrome  Beckwith-Wiedemann s.
Escobar syndrome  multiple pterygium s.
excited skin syndrome  nonspecific cutaneous hyperirritability of the back, sometimes occurring when multiple positive reactions are elicited in patch test screening of a battery of substances.
exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism syndrome  Beckwith-Wiedemann s.
extrapyramidal syndrome  any of a group of clinical disorders considered to be due to malfunction in the extrapyramidal system and marked by abnormal involuntary movements; included are parkinsonism, athetosis, and chorea.
Faber's syndrome  hypochromic anemia.
Fanconi syndrome 
1. a rare hereditary disorder, transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, characterized by pancytopenia, hypoplasia of the bone marrow, and patchy brown discoloration of the skin due to the deposition of melanin, and associated with multiple congenital anomalies of the musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems.
2. a general term for a group of diseases marked by dysfunction of the proximal renal tubules, with generalized hyperaminoaciduria, renal glycosuria, hyperphosphaturia, and bicarbonate and water loss; the most common cause is cystinosis, but it is also associated with other genetic diseases and occurs in idiopathic and acquired forms.
Farber syndrome , Farber-Uzman syndrome Farber's disease.
Felty's syndrome  a syndrome of splenomegaly with chronic rheumatoid arthritis and leukopenia; there are usually pigmented spots on the skin of the lower extremities, and sometimes there is other evidence of hypersplenism such as anemia or thrombocytopenia.
fetal alcohol syndrome  a syndrome of altered prenatal growth and morphogenesis, occurring in infants born of women who were chronically alcoholic during pregnancy; it includes maxillary hypoplasia, prominence of the forehead and mandible, short palpebral fissures, microophthalmia, epicanthal folds, severe growth retardation, mental retardation, and microcephaly.
fetal hydantoin syndrome  poor growth and development with craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, produced by prenatal exposure to hydantoin analogues, including phenytoin.
floppy infant syndrome  abnormal posture in an infant suspended prone, the limbs and head hanging down; due to any of numerous conditions, particularly perinatal injury to the brain or spinal cord, spinal muscular atrophy, and various genetic disorders.
Foix-Alajouanine syndrome  a fatal necrotizing myelopathy characterized by necrosis of the gray matter of the spinal cord, thickening of the walls of the spinal vessels, and abnormal spinal fluid.
Franceschetti syndrome  the complete form of mandibulofacial dysostosis.
galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome  amenorrhea and galactorrhea, sometimes associated with increased levels of prolactin.
Ganser syndrome  the giving of approximate answers to questions, commonly associated with amnesia, disorientation, perceptual disturbances, fugue, and conversion symptoms.
Garcin's syndrome  unilateral paralysis of most or all of the cranial nerves due to a tumor at the base of the skull or in the nasopharynx.
Gardner's syndrome  familial polyposis of the colon associated with osseous and soft tissue tumors.
gay bowel syndrome  an assortment of sexually transmitted bowel and rectal diseases affecting homosexual males and others who engage in anal intercourse, caused by a wide variety of infectious agents.
general adaptation syndrome  the total of all nonspecific reactions of the body to prolonged systemic stress, comprising alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome , Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome a group of rare prion diseases of autosomal dominant inheritance, having the common characteristics of cognitive and motor disturbances, ending in death, and the presence of multicentric amyloid plaques in the brain.
Gianotti-Crosti syndrome  monomorphous, usually nonpruritic, dusky or coppery red, flat-topped, firm papules forming a symmetrical eruption on the face, buttocks, and limbs, including the palms and soles, with malaise and low-grade fever; seen in young children and associated with viral infection.
Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome  a childhood-onset syndrome comprising both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics, often associated with obsessions, compulsions, hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsivity; it may diminish or even remit in adolescence or adulthood.
Goodpasture's syndrome  glomerulonephritis with pulmonary hemorrhage and circulating antibodies against basement membranes, usually seen in young men and with a course of rapidly progressing renal failure, with hemoptysis, pulmonary infiltrates, and dyspnea.
Gradenigo's syndrome  sixth nerve palsy and unilateral headache in suppurative disease of the middle ear, due to involvement of the abducens and trigeminal nerves by direct spread of the infection.
gray syndrome  a potentially fatal condition seen in neonates, particularly premature infants, due to a reaction to chloramphenicol, characterized by an ashen gray cyanosis, listlessness, weakness, and hypotension.
Guillain-Barré syndrome  acute idiopathic polyneuritis.
Gunn's syndrome  unilateral ptosis of the eyelid, with movements of the affected eyelid associated with those of the jaw.
Hamman-Rich syndrome  the acute form of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Hand-Schüller-Christian syndrome  see under disease.
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome  a sometimes fatal febrile illness caused by a hantavirus, characterized by variable respiratory symptoms followed by acute respiratory distress, sometimes progressing to respiratory failure.
happy puppet syndrome  an inherited syndrome of jerky puppetlike movements, frequent laughter, mental and motor retardation, peculiar open-mouthed facies, and seizures.
Harada syndrome  Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada s.
Hay-Wells syndrome  an inherited syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip and palate, and adhesions of the margins of the eyelids, accompanied by tooth, skin, and hair abnormalities.
HELLP syndrome  h emolysis, e levated l iver enzymes, and l ow p latelet count occurring in association with pre-eclampsia.
Helweg-Larsen's syndrome  an inherited syndrome of anhidrosis present from birth and labyrinthitis occurring late in life.
hemolytic uremic syndrome  a form of thrombotic microangiopathy with renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and severe thrombocytopenia and purpura.
Herrmann's syndrome  an inherited syndrome initially characterized by photomyogenic seizures and progressive deafness, with later development of diabetes mellitus, nephropathy, and mental deterioration.
Hinman syndrome  a psychogenic disorder seen in children, imitating a neurogenic bladder, consisting of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia without evidence of neural lesion.
Horner syndrome , Horner-Bernard syndrome sinking in of the eyeball, ptosis of the upper lid, slight elevation of the lower lid, miosis, narrowing of the palpebral fissure, and anhidrosis and flushing of the affected side of the face; due to a brain stem lesion on the ipsilateral side that interrupts descending sympathetic nerves.
Hughes-Stovin syndrome  thrombosis of the pulmonary arteries and peripheral veins, characterized by headache, fever, cough, papilledema, and hemoptysis.
Hurler's syndrome  an inherited mucopolysaccharidosis due to deficiency of the enzyme α-l-iduronidase, characterized by gargoyle-like facies, dwarfism, severe somatic and skeletal changes, severe mental retardation, cloudy corneas, deafness, cardiovascular defects, hepatosplenomegaly, joint contractures, and death in childhood.
Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome  progeria.
hypereosinophilic syndrome  any of several diseases characterized by a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood and bone marrow, with infiltration of other organs. Symptoms vary from mild to the often fatal outcome of eosinophilic leukemia.
hyperkinetic syndrome  former name for attention-deficit.
hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome  an inherited disorder characterized by elevated levels of ornithine, postprandial hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria, and aversion to protein ingestion; believed to result from a defect in the transport of ornithine into the mitochondria, which disturbs the cycle of ureagenesis.
hyperventilation syndrome  a complex of symptoms that accompany hypocapnia caused by hyperventilation, including palpitations, shortness of breath, lightheadedness or giddiness, profuse perspiration, tingling sensations in the fingertips, face, or toes, and vasomotor collapse and loss of consciousness if prolonged.
hypoplastic left heart syndrome  congenital hypoplasia or atresia of the left ventricle, aortic or mitral valve, and ascending aorta, with respiratory distress, cardiac failure, and death in infancy.
impingement syndrome  progressive pathologic changes resulting from the impingement of the acromion, coracoacromial ligament, coracoid process, or acromioclavicular joint on the rotator cuff.
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone  (SIADH) persistent hyponatremia, inappropriately elevated urine osmolality, caused by release of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) without discernible stimulus.
irritable bowel syndrome , irritable colon syndrome a chronic noninflammatory disease with a psychophysiologic basis, characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation or both, and no detectable pathologic change.
Isaacs' syndrome , Isaacs-Mertens syndrome progressive muscle stiffness and spasms, with continuous muscle fiber activity similar to that seen with neuromyotonia.
Jacod's syndrome  chronic arthritis after rheumatic fever, with fibrous changes in the joint capsules leading to deformities that may resemble rheumatoid arthritis but lack bone erosion.
Jarcho-Levin syndrome  an inherited disorder of multiple vertebral defects, short thorax, rib abnormalities, camptodactyly, syndactyly, and sometimes urogenital abnormalities, usually fatal in infancy.
Joubert's syndrome  inherited, usually fatal, partial to complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, with hypotonia, episodic hyperpnea, mental retardation, and abnormal eye movements.
Kartagener's syndrome  a hereditary syndrome consisting of dextrocardia, bronchiectasis, and sinusitis.
Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome  intercapillary glomerulosclerosis in which the lesions are nodular.
King syndrome  a form of malignant hyperthermia accompanied by characteristic physical abnormalities.
Klinefelter's syndrome  smallness of testes with fibrosis and hyalinization of seminiferous tubules, variable degrees of masculinization, azoospermia, and infertility, and increased urinary gonadotropins. It is associated typically with an XXY chromosome complement although variants include XXYY, XXXY, XXXXY, and various mosaic patterns.
Klippel-Feil syndrome  shortness of the neck due to reduction in the number of cervical vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass, with limitation of neck motion and low hairline.
Korsakoff's syndrome  a syndrome of anterograde and retrograde amnesia with confabulation associated with alcoholic or nonalcoholic polyneuritis, currently used synonymously with the term amnestic syndrome or, more narrowly, to refer to the amnestic component of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
Kugelberg-Welander syndrome  an inherited juvenile form of muscular atrophy due to lesions on the anterior horns of the spinal cord, beginning with the proximal muscles of the lower limbs and pelvic girdle and progressing to the distal muscles.
LAMB syndrome  a syndrome of familial myomas with cutaneous, cardiac, and endocrine involvement, manifested as l entigines, a trial m yxoma, and b lue nevi.
Landau-Kleffner syndrome  an epileptic syndrome of childhood with partial or generalized seizures, psychomotor abnormalities, and aphasia progressing to mutism.
Launois' syndrome  pituitary gigantism.
Laurence-Moon syndrome  an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation, pigmentary retinopathy, hypogonadism, and spastic paraplegia.
lazy leukocyte syndrome  a syndrome in children, marked by recurrent low-grade infections with a defect in neutrophil chemotaxis and deficient random mobility of neutrophils.
Lemieux-Neemeh syndrome  an inherited syndrome of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with progressive deafness.
Leriche syndrome  lower limb fatigue on exercising, lack of femoral pulse, impotence, and often pale, cold lower limbs, usually seen in males due to obstruction of the terminal aorta.
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome  an X-linked disorder of purine metabolism with physical and mental retardation, compulsive self-mutilation of fingers and lips by biting, choreoathetosis, spastic cerebral palsy, and impaired renal function, and by extremely excessive purine synthesis and consequently hyperuricemia and excessive urinary secretion of uric acid.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome  a familial syndrome of early breast carcinoma associated with soft tissue sarcomas and other tumors.
locked-in syndrome  quadriplegia and mutism with intact consciousness and preservation of some eye movements; usually due to a vascular lesion of the anterior pons.
long QT syndrome  prolongation of the Q–T interval combined with torsades de pointes and manifest in several forms, either acquired or congenital, the latter with or without deafness; it may lead to serious arrhythmia and sudden death.
Lowe syndrome , Lowe-Terrey-MacLachlan syndrome oculocerebrorenal s.
Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome  a preexcitation syndrome of electrocardiographic abnormality characterized by a short P–R interval with a normal QRS complex, accompanied by atrial tachycardia.
Lutembacher's syndrome  atrial septal defect with mitral stenosis (usually rheumatic).
lymphadenopathy syndrome  unexplained lymphadenopathy for 3 or more months at extrainguinal sites, revealing on biopsy nonspecific lymphoid hyperplasia, possibly a prodrome of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Maffucci's syndrome  enchondromatosis with multiple cutaneous or visceral hemangiomas.
malabsorption syndrome  a group of disorders marked by subnormal absorption of dietary constituents, and thus excessive loss of nutrients in the stool, which may be due to a digestive defect, a mucosal abnormality, or lymphatic obstruction.
male Turner's syndrome  Noonan's s.
Marfan syndrome  a hereditary syndrome of abnormal length of limbs, especially fingers and toes, with subluxation of the lens, cardiovascular abnormalities, and other defects.
Marie-Bamberger syndrome  hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.
maternal deprivation syndrome  failure to thrive with severe growth retardation, unresponsiveness to the environment, depression, retarded mental and emotional development, and behavioral problems resulting from loss, absence, or neglect of the mother or other primary caregiver.
Meckel's syndrome  an autosomal recessive syndrome, with sloping forehead, posterior meningoencephalocele, polydactyly, polycystic kidneys, and death in the perinatal period.
meconium aspiration syndrome  the respiratory complications resulting from the passage and aspiration of meconium prior to or during delivery.
median cleft facial syndrome  a hereditary form of defective midline development of the head and face, including ocular hypertelorism, occult cleft nose and maxilla, and sometimes mental retardation or other defects.
megacystis-megaureter syndrome  chronic ureteral dilatation (megaureter) associated with hypotonia and dilatation of the bladder (megacystis) and gaping of ureteral orifices, permitting vesicoureteral reflux of urine, and resulting in chronic pyelonephritis.
megacystis-microcolon–intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome  (MMIHS) enlarged bladder (megacystis), small colon with decreased or absent peristalsis (microcolon and intestinal hypoperistalsis), and the same abdominal muscle defect as occurs in prune-belly syndrome.
Meige syndrome 
2. dystonia of facial and oromandibular muscles with blepharospasm, grimacing mouth movements, and protrusion of the tongue.
MELAS syndrome  a maternally-inherited syndrome of m itochondrial e ncephalopathy, l actic a cidosis, and s troke-like episodes.
Menkes' syndrome  an X-linked recessive disorder of copper absorption marked by severe cerebral degeneration and arterial changes resulting in death in infancy and by sparse, brittle scalp hair.
Meretoja's syndrome  a type of familial amyloid polyneuropathy.
MERRF syndrome  a maternally-inherited syndrome of m yoclonus with e pilepsy and with r agged r ed f ibers.
metabolic syndrome  a combination including at least three of the following: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low level of high-density lipoproteins, hypertension, and high fasting glucose level.
methionine malabsorption syndrome  an inborn aminoacidopathy marked by white hair, mental retardation, convulsions, attacks of hyperpnea, and urine with an odor like an oasthouse (for drying hops) due to alpha-hydroxybutyric acid formed by bacterial action on the unabsorbed methionine.
middle lobe syndrome  lobar atelectasis in the right middle lobe of the lung, with chronic pneumonitis.
Mikulicz's syndrome  chronic bilateral hypertrophy of the lacrimal, parotid, and salivary glands, associated with chronic lymphocytic infiltration; it may be associated with other diseases.
milk-alkali syndrome  hypercalcemia without hypercalciuria or hypophosphatemia and with only mild alkalosis and other symptoms attributed to ingestion of milk and absorbable alkali for long periods.
Milkman syndrome  a generalized bone disease marked by multiple transparent stripes of absorption in the long and flat bones.
Miller syndrome  an inherited syndrome of extensive facial and limb defects, sometimes accompanied by heart defects and hearing loss.
mitral valve prolapse syndrome  prolapse of the mitral valve, often with regurgitation; a common, usually benign, often asymptomatic condition characterized by midsystolic clicks and late systolic murmurs on auscultation.
Möbius' syndrome  agenesis or aplasia of cranial nerve motor nuclei in congenital bilateral facial palsy, with unilateral or bilateral paralysis of abductors of the eye and sometimes cranial nerve involvement and limb anomalies.
Mohr syndrome  an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brachydactyly, clinodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, and bilateral hallucal polysyndactyly; by cranial, facial, lingual, palatal, and mandibular anomalies; and by episodic neuromuscular disturbances.
Morquio's syndrome  two biochemically distinct but clinically nearly indistinguishable forms of mucopolysaccharidosis, marked by genu valgum, pigeon breast, progressive flattening of the vertebral bodies, short neck and trunk, progressive deafness, mild corneal clouding, and excretion of keratan sulfate in the urine.
mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome  Kawasaki disease.
multiple endocrine deficiency syndrome , multiple glandular deficiency syndrome failure of any combination of endocrine glands, often accompanied by nonendocrine autoimmune abnormalities.
multiple pterygium syndrome  an inherited syndrome characterized by pterygia of the neck, axillae, and popliteal, antecubital, and intercrural areas, accompanied by facial, skeletal, and genital abnormalites.
Munchausen syndrome  a subtype of factitious disorder; habitual seeking of hospital treatment for apparent acute illness, the patient giving a plausible and dramatic history, all of which is false.
Munchausen syndrome by proxy  see factitious disorder by proxy, under disorder.
myelodysplastic syndrome  any of a group of related bone marrow disorders of varying duration preceding the development of overt acute myelogenous leukemia; characterized by abnormal hematopoietic stem cells, anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia.
myeloproliferative syndromes  see under disorder.
NAME syndrome  a syndrome of familial myxomas with cutaneous, cardiac, and endocrine involvement, manifested as n evi, a trial m yxoma, and neurofibroma e phelides.
Negri-Jacod syndrome  Jacod's s.
Nelson's syndrome  the development of an ACTH-producing pituitary tumor after bilateral adrenalectomy in Cushing's syndrome; it is characterized by aggressive growth of the tumor and hyperpigmentation of the skin.
nephrotic syndrome  any of a group of diseases involving defective kidney glomeruli, with massive proteinuria, lipiduria with edema, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia.
nerve compression syndrome  entrapment neuropathy.
Noack syndrome  Pfeiffer's s.
nonstaphylococcal scalded skin syndrome  toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Noonan syndrome  webbed neck, ptosis, hypogonadism, and short stature, i.e., the phenotype of Turner's syndrome without the gonadal dysgenesis.
obesity-hypoventilation syndrome  pickwickian syndrome; a syndrome of obesity, somnolence, hypoventilation, and erythrocytosis.
occipital horn syndrome  the X-linked recessive form of cutis laxa.
oculocerebrorenal syndrome  an X-linked disorder marked by vitamin D–refractory rickets, hydrophthalmia, congenital glaucoma and cataracts, mental retardation, and renal tubule dysfunction as evidenced by hypophosphatemia, acidosis, and aminoaciduria.
oculodentodigital syndrome , ODD syndrome oculodentodigital dysplasia.
OFD syndrome  oral-facial-digital s.
Opitz syndrome , Opitz-Frias syndrome a familial syndrome consisting of hypertelorism and hernias, and in males also characterized by hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and bifid scrotum. Cardiac, laryngotracheal, pulmonary, anal, and renal abnormalities may also be present.
oral-facial-digital syndrome  any of a group of congenital syndromes characterized by oral, facial, and digital anomalies. Type I, a male-lethal X-linked dominant disorder, is characterized by camptodactyly, polydactyly, and syndactyly; by cranial, facial, lingual, and dental anomalies; and by mental retardation, familial trembling, alopecia, and seborrhea of the face and milia; type II is Mohr s.; type III, an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by postaxial hexadactyly, by ocular, lingual, and dental anomalies, and by profound mental retardation.
orbital floor syndrome  exophthalmos, diplopia, and anesthesia in the areas innervated by the trigeminal nerve, occurring with a lesion in the floor of the orbit.
organic anxiety syndrome  a term used in a former system of classification, denoting an organic mental syndrome marked by prominent, recurrent panic attacks or generalized anxiety caused by a specific organic factor and not associated with delirium.
organic brain syndrome  organic mental s.
organic delusional syndrome  a term used in a former system of classification, denoting an organic mental syndrome marked by delusions caused by a specific organic factor and not associated with delirium.
organic mental syndrome  former term for a constellation of psychological or behavioral signs and symptoms associated with brain dysfunction of unknown or unspecified etiology and grouped according to symptoms rather than etiology. See also under disorder.
organic mood syndrome  a term used in a former system of classification, denoting an organic mental syndrome marked by manic or depressive mood disturbance caused by a specific organic factor and not associated with delirium.
organic personality syndrome  a term used in a former system of classification, denoting an organic mental syndrome characterized by a marked change in behavior or personality, caused by a specific organic factor and not associated with delirium or dementia.
orofaciodigital syndrome  oral-facial-digital s.
Ortner syndrome  laryngeal paralysis associated with heart disease, due to compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve between the aorta and a dilated pulmonary artery.
ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome  mild to severe ovarian enlargement with exudation of fluid and protein, leading to ascites, pleural or pericardial effusion, azotemia, oliguria, and thromboembolism in women undergoing ovulation induction.
ovarian vein syndrome  obstruction of the ureter due to compression by an enlarged or varicose ovarian vein; typically the vein becomes enlarged during pregnancy.
overlap syndrome  any of a group of connective tissue disorders that either combine scleroderma with polymyositis or systemic lupus erythematosus or combine systemic lupus erythematosus with rheumatoid arthritis or polymyositis.
overwear syndrome  extreme photophobia, pain, and lacrimation associated with contact lenses, particularly non–gas permeable hard lenses, usually caused by wearing them excessively.
pacemaker syndrome  vertigo, syncope, and hypotension, often accompanied by dyspnea, cough, nausea, peripheral edema, and palpitations, all exacerbated or caused by pacemakers that stimulate the ventricle and therefore do not maintain normal atrioventricular synchrony.
pacemaker twiddler's syndrome  twiddler's syndrome in a patient with an artificial cardiac pacemaker.
painful bruising syndrome  occurrence of one or more spontaneous, chronic recurring painful ecchymoses without antecedent trauma or after insufficient trauma; sometimes precipitated by emotional stress. Because certain patients exhibit autoerythrocyte sensitization in which intradermal injection of their own erythrocytes produces a painful ecchymosis, some consider the condition to be an autosensitivity to a component of the erythrocyte membrane; others consider it to be of psychosomatic or factitious origin.
Pancoast's syndrome 
1. neuritic pain and muscle atrophy in the upper limb, and Horner's syndrome, seen with a tumor near the apex of the lung when it involves the brachial plexus.
2. osteolysis in the posterior part of a rib or ribs, sometimes spreading to adjacent vertebrae.
paraneoplastic syndrome  a symptom complex arising in a cancer-bearing patient that cannot be explained by local or distant spread of the tumor.
Parinaud's syndrome  paralysis of conjugate upward movement of the eyes without paralysis of convergence; associated with tumors of the midbrain.
Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome  a general term applied to conjunctivitis, usually unilateral and of the follicular type, followed by tenderness and enlargement of the preauricular lymph nodes; often due to leptotrichosis but may be associated with other infections.
parkinsonian syndrome  a form of parkinsonism due to idiopathic degeneration of the corpus striatum or substantia nigra; frequently a sequela of lethargic encephalitis.
PEP syndrome  POEMS s.
Pepper syndrome  neuroblastoma with metastases to the liver.
persistent müllerian duct syndrome  a hereditary syndrome in males of persistence of müllerian structures in addition to male genital ducts. There may be cryptorchidism on just one side with a contralateral inguinal hernia that contains a testis, uterus, and uterine tube (hernia uteri inguinalis).
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome  familial gastrointestinal polyposis, especially in the small bowel, associated with mucocutaneous pigmentation.
Pfeiffer syndrome  acrocephalosyndactyly, type V; an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acrocephalosyndactyly associated with broad short thumbs and big toes.
pickwickian syndrome  obesity-hypoventilation s.
Pierre Robin syndrome  micrognathia with cleft palate, glossoptosis, and absent gag reflex.
plica syndrome  pain, tenderness, swelling, and crepitus of the knee joint, sometimes with weakness or locking of the joint, caused by fibrosis and calcification of the synovial plicae.
Plummer-Vinson syndrome  dysphagia with glossitis, hypochromic anemia, splenomegaly, and atrophy in the mouth, pharynx, and upper end of the esophagus.
POEMS syndrome  p olyneuropathy, o rganomegaly, e ndocrinopathy, M component, and s kin changes, sometimes linked to a dysproteinemia such as the presence of unusual monoclonal proteins and light chains.
polyangiitis overlap syndrome  a form of systemic necrotizing vasculitis resembling polyarteritis nodosa and allergic angiitis but also showing features of hypersensitivity vasculitis.
polycystic ovary syndrome  (PCOS) a clinical symptom complex associated with polycystic ovaries and characterized by oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, anovulation (hence infertility), and hirsutism; both hyperestrogenism and hyperandrogenism are present.
polysplenia syndrome  a congenital syndrome of multiple splenic masses, abnormal position and development of visceral organs, complex cardiovascular defects, and abnormal, usually bilobate, lungs.
post–cardiac injury syndrome  fever, chest pain, pleuritis, and pericarditis weeks after injury to the heart, including that due to surgery (postpericardiotomy s.) and that due to myocardial infarction (post) .
postcardiotomy syndrome  postpericardiotomy s.
postcardiotomy psychosis syndrome  anxiety, confusion, and perception disturbances occurring three or more days after open heart surgery.
postcommissurotomy syndrome  postpericardiotomy s.
postconcussional syndrome  physical and personality changes that may occur after concussion of the brain, including amnesia, headache, dizziness, tinnitus, irritability, fatigability, sweating, heart palpitations, insomnia, and difficulty concentrating.
postgastrectomy syndrome  dumping s.
post–lumbar puncture syndrome  headache in the erect posture, sometimes with nuchal pain, vomiting, diaphoresis, and malaise, all relieved by recumbency, occurring several hours after lumbar puncture; it is due to lowering of intracranial pressure by leakage of cerebrospinal fluid through the needle tract.
postmaturity syndrome  a syndrome due to placental insufficiency that causes chronic stress and hypoxia, seen in fetuses and neonates in postterm pregnancies, characterized by decreased subcutaneous fat, skin desquamation, and long fingernails, often with yellow meconium staining of the nails, skin, and vernix.
post–myocardial infarction syndrome  post after myocardial infarction.
postpericardiotomy syndrome  post after surgery with opening of the pericardium.
Potter's syndrome  oligohydramnios sequence.
preexcitation syndrome  any syndrome with electrocardiographic signs of preexcitation, such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; sometimes used synonymously with it.
premenstrual syndrome  some or all of the symptoms of depressed, anxious, angry, or irritable mood, emotional lability, bloating, edema, headache, increased fatigue or lethargy, altered appetite or food cravings, breast swelling and tenderness, constipation, and decreased ability to concentrate occurring in the period between ovulation and the onset of menstruation.
prune-belly syndrome  a congenital syndrome of deficient or absent anterior abdominal wall musculature, urinary tract anomalies, and undescended testicles. The abdomen is protruding and thin-walled, with wrinkled skin.
Putnam-Dana syndrome  subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Raeder syndrome , Raeder paratrigeminal syndrome unilateral paroxysmal neuralgic pain in the face associated with Horner's syndrome.
Ramsay Hunt syndrome 
1. geniculate neuralgia; facial paralysis with otalgia and a vesicular eruption in the external canal of the ear, sometimes extending to the auricle, due to herpes zoster virus infection of the geniculate ganglion.
Reiter syndrome  the triad of nongonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis, frequently with mucocutaneous lesions.
respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn  a condition seen in infants born prematurely, by cesarean section, or to diabetic mothers, marked by dyspnea and cyanosis; a common, usually fatal subtype is hyaline membrane disease.
Reye's syndrome  a rare often fatal encephalopathy of childhood, marked by acute brain swelling with hypoglycemia, fatty infiltration of the liver, hepatomegaly, and disturbed consciousness and seizures, usually seen as a sequel of varicella or an upper airway viral infection.
Rh-null syndrome  chronic hemolytic anemia affecting individuals who lack all Rh factors (Rhnull); it is marked by spherocytosis, stomatocytosis, and increased osmotic fragility.
Riley-Day syndrome  familial dysautonomia.
Rosenberg-Bergstrom syndrome  an inherited syndrome of hyperuricemia, renal insufficiency, ataxia, and deafness.
Rukavina's syndrome  a type of familial amyloid polyneuropathy.
Rundles-Falls syndrome  hereditary sideroblastic anemia.
Ruvalcaba's syndrome  abnormal shortness of the metacarpal or metatarsal bones, hypoplastic genitalia, and mental and physical retardation of unkown etiology, present from birth in males.
Saethre-Chotzen syndrome  Chotzen's s.
salt-depletion syndrome , salt-losing syndrome vomiting, dehydration, hypotension, and sudden death due to very large sodium losses from the body. It may be seen in abnormal losses of sodium into the urine (as in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenocortical insufficiency, or one of the forms of salt-losing nephritis) or in large extrarenal sodium losses, usually from the gastrointestinal tract.
Sanfilippo's syndrome  four biochemically distinct but clinically indistinguishable forms of mucopolysaccharidosis, characterized by urinary excretion of heparan sulfate, rapid mental deterioration, and mild Hurler-like symptoms, with death usually occurring before 20 years of age.
scalenus syndrome , scalenus anticus syndrome a type of thoracic outlet syndrome due to compression of the nerves and vessels between a cervical rib and the scalenus anticus muscle, with pain over the shoulder, often extending down the arm or radiating up the back.
Schaumann's syndrome  sarcoidosis.
Scheie's syndrome  a mild allelic variant of Hurler's syndrome, marked by corneal clouding, clawhand, aortic valve involvement, wide-mouthed facies, genu valgus, and pes cavus; stature, intelligence, and life span are normal.
second impact syndrome  acute, usually fatal, brain swelling and increased cranial pressure, caused by repeated head trauma in a short space of time, so that a second concussion occurs before recovery from a previous concussion is complete.
Sertoli-cell–only syndrome  congenital absence of the germinal epithelium of the testes, the seminiferous tubules containing only Sertoli cells, marked by testes slightly smaller than normal, azoospermia, and elevated titers of follicle-stimulating hormone and sometimes of luteinizing hormone.
severe acute respiratory syndrome  (SARS) an infectious respiratory illness characterized by fever, dry cough, and breathing difficulties, often accompanied by headache and body aches; believed to be caused by a coronavirus.
Sézary syndrome  a form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by exfoliative erythroderma, intense pruritus, peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear cells in the skin, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood.
Sheehan's syndrome  postpartum pituitary necrosis.
short-bowel syndrome , short-gut syndrome any of the malabsorption conditions resulting from massive resection of the small bowel, the degree and kind of malabsorption depending on the site and extent of the resection; it is characterized by diarrhea, steatorrhea, and malnutrition.
shoulder-hand syndrome  reflex sympathetic dystrophy limited to the upper limb.
Shprintzen's syndrome  velocardiofacial s.
Shwachman syndrome , Shwachman-Diamond syndrome primary pancreatic insufficiency and bone marrow failure, characterized by normal sweat chloride values, pancreatic insufficiency, and neutropenia; it may be associated with dwarfism and metaphyseal dysostosis of the hips.
sick sinus syndrome  intermittent bradycardia, sometimes with episodes of atrial tachyarrhythmias or periods of sinus arrest, due to malfunction originating in the supraventricular portion of the cardiac conducting system.
Silver-Russell syndrome  a syndrome of low birth weight despite normal gestation duration, and short stature, lateral asymmetry, and some increase in gonadotropin secretion.
Sipple's syndrome  multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II.
Sjögren's syndrome  a symptom complex usually in middle-aged or older women, marked by keratoconjunctivitis sicca, xerostomia, and enlargement of the parotid glands; it is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and sometimes with systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, or polymyositis.
sleep apnea syndrome  sleep apnea.
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome  an autosomal recessive syndrome of microcephaly, mental retardation, hypotonia, incomplete development of male genitalia, short nose with anteverted nostrils, and syndactyly of second and third toes.
social breakdown syndrome  deterioration of social and interpersonal skills, work habits, and behavior seen in chronically hospitalized psychiatric patients; due to the effects of long-term institutionalization rather than the primary illness.
stagnant loop syndrome  stasis s.
staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome  an infectious disease, usually affecting infants and young children, following infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus, characterized by localized to widespread bullous eruption and exfoliation of the skin leaving raw, denuded areas that make the skin look scalded.
stasis syndrome  overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine secondary to various disorders causing stasis; it is characterized by malabsorption of vitamin B12, steatorrhea, and anemia.
Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome  a progressive neurological disorder with onset during the sixth decade, characterized by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, especially paralysis of the downward gaze, pseudobulbar palsy, dysarthria, dystonic rigidity of the neck and trunk, and dementia.
Stein-Leventhal syndrome  polycystic ovary s.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome  a sometimes fatal form of erythema multiforme presenting with a flulike prodrome and characterized by severe mucocutaneous lesions; pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, and renal involvement may occur.
Stewart-Treves syndrome  lymphangiosarcoma occurring as a late complication of severe lymphedema of the arm after excision of the lymph nodes, usually in radical mastectomy.
stiff-man syndrome  a condition of unknown etiology marked by progressive fluctuating rigidity of axial and limb muscles in the absence of signs of cerebral and spinal cord disease but with continuous electromyographic activity.
stroke syndrome  stroke; a condition with sudden onset due to acute vascular lesions of the brain (hemorrhage, embolism, thrombosis, rupturing aneurysm), which may be marked by hemiplegia or hemiparesis, vertigo, numbness, aphasia, and dysarthria, and often followed by permanent neurologic damage.
Sturge's syndrome , Sturge-Kalischer-Weber syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome a congenital syndrome consisting of a port-wine stain type of nevus flammeus distributed over the trigeminal nerve accompanied by a similar vascular disorder of the underlying meninges and cerebral cortex.
subclavian steal syndrome  cerebral or brain stem ischemia due to vertebrobasilar insufficiency in cases of subclavian steal.
sudden infant death syndrome  sudden and unexpected death of an infant who had previously been apparently well, and which is unexplained by careful postmortem examination.
Swyer-James syndrome  acquired unilateral hyperlucent lung, with severe airway obstruction during exhalation, oligemia, and a small hilum.
tarsal tunnel syndrome  a complex of symptoms resulting from compression of the posterior tibial nerve or of the plantar nerves in the tarsal tunnel, with pain, numbness, and tingling paresthesia of the sole of the foot.
Taussig-Bing syndrome  transposition of the great vessels of the heart and a ventricular septal defect straddled by a large pulmonary artery.
testicular feminization syndrome  complete androgen resistance.
thoracic outlet syndrome  any of several neurovascular syndromes due to compression of the brachial plexus nerve trunks, with pain, paresthesias, vasomotor symptoms, and weakness and small muscle wasting in upper limbs; causes include drooping shoulder girdle, a cervical rib or fibrous band, an abnormal first rib, limb hyperabduction (as during sleep), or compression of the edge of the scalenus anterior muscle.
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome  unilateral ophthalmoplegia associated with pain behind the orbit and in the area supplied by the first division of the trigeminal nerve; it is thought to be due to nonspecific inflammation and granulation tissue in the superior orbital fissure or cavernous sinus.
TORCH syndrome  (t oxoplasmosis, o ther agents, r ubella, c ytomegalovirus, h erpes simplex) any of a group of infections seen in neonates as a result of the infectious agent having crossed the placental barrier.
Tourette's syndrome  Gilles de la Tourette's s.
Townes' syndrome  an inherited disorder of auricular anomalies, anal defects, limb and digit anomalies, and renal deficiencies, occasionally including cardiac disease, deafness, or cystic ovary.
toxic shock syndrome  a severe illness with sudden high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and myalgia, followed by hypotension and, in severe cases, shock; a sunburn-like rash with skin peeling, especially on palms and soles, occurs during the acute phase. It primarily affects menstruating women using tampons, although a few women not using tampons and a few males have been affected. It is thought to be caused by infection with Staphylococcus aureus.
Treacher Collins syndrome  the incomplete form of mandibulofacial dysostosis.
trisomy 8 syndrome  a syndrome due to an extra chromosome 8, usually mosaic (trisomy 8/normal), with mild to severe mental retardation, prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, thick lips, prominent ears, and camptodactyly.
trisomy 11q syndrome  a variable syndrome due to an extra long arm of chromosome 11, possibly including preauricular fistulas, hypoplasia of the gallbladder, micropenis, bicornuate uterus, microphthalmos, malformations of the heart, lungs, and brain, seizures, and recurrent infection.
trisomy 13 syndrome  holoprosencephaly due to an extra chromosome 13, in which central nervous system defects are associated with mental retardation, along with cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, and dermal pattern anomalies, and abnormalities of the heart, viscera, and genitalia.
trisomy 18 syndrome  neonatal hepatitis, mental retardation, scaphocephaly or other skull abnormality, micrognathia, blepharoptosis, low-set ears, corneal opacities, deafness, webbed neck, short digits, ventricular septal defects, Meckel's diverticulum, and other deformities. It is due to an extra chromosome 18.
trisomy 21 syndrome  Down s.
Trousseau's syndrome  spontaneous venous thrombosis of upper and lower limbs associated with visceral carcinoma.
tumor lysis syndrome  severe hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, and hypocalcemia after effective induction chemotherapy of rapidly growing malignant neoplasms.
Turcot's syndrome  familial polyposis of the colon associated with gliomas of the central nervous sytem.
Turner's syndrome  gonadal dysgenesis with short stature, undifferentiated (streak) gonads, and variable abnormalities such as webbing of neck, low posterior hair line, increased carrying angle of elbow, cubitus valgus, and cardiac defects. The genotype is XO (45, X) or X/XX or X/XXX mosaic. The phenotype is female.
twiddler's syndrome  dislodgement, breakdown, or other malfunction of an implanted diagnostic device as a result of unconscious or habitual manipulation by the patient.
twin transfusion syndrome , twin–twin transfusion syndrome one caused by twin-to-twin transfusion (q.v.); the donor twin is small, pale, and anemic, while the recipient is large and polycythemic, with an overloaded cardiovascular system.
Enlarge picture
Twin transfusion syndrome characterized by arteriovenous shunt at a shared placental cotyledon in diamniotic monochorionic twins.
urethral syndrome  symptoms associated with a urethral problem other than infection, including suprapubic aching and cramping, urinary frequency, and bladder complaints such as dysuria, tenesmus, and low back pain.
Usher's syndrome  an inherited syndrome of congenital deafness with retinitis pigmentosa, often ending in blindness; mental retardation and gait disturbances may also occur.
velocardiofacial syndrome  an inherited syndrome of cardiac defects and craniofacial anomalies, often with abnormalities of chromosome 22; learning disabilities often occur, and less often other abnormalities.
Vernet's syndrome  paralysis of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves due to a lesion in the region of the jugular foramen.
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome  bilateral uveitis with iridocyclitis, exudative choroiditis, meningism, and retinal detachment, accompanied by alopecia, vitiligo, poliosis, loss of visual acuity, headache, vomiting, and deafness; possibly an inflammatory autoimmune disorder.
Waardenburg's syndrome  a hereditary, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by wide bridge of the nose due to lateral displacement of the inner canthi and puncta, pigmentary disturbances, including white forelock, heterochromia iridis, white eyelashes, leukoderma, and sometimes cochlear hearing loss.
WAGR syndrome  a syndrome of W ilms' tumor, a niridia, g enitourinary abnormalities or g onadoblastoma, and mental r etardation, due to a deletion in chromosome 11.
Walker-Warburg syndrome , Warburg's syndrome a usually fatal congenital syndrome of hydrocephalus, agyria, various ocular anomalies, and sometimes encephalocele.
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome  the malignant or fulminating form of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, with sudden onset, short course, fever, collapse, coma, cyanosis, petechiae on the skin and mucous membranes, and bilateral adrenal hemorrhage.
Weber's syndrome  paralysis of the oculomotor nerve on the same side as the lesion, causing ptosis, strabismus, and loss of light reflex and accommodation; also spastic hemiplegia on the side opposite the lesion with increased reflexes and loss of superficial reflexes.
Weil's syndrome  a severe form of leptospirosis, marked by jaundice usually accompanied by azotemia, hemorrhage, anemia, disturbances of consciousness, and continued fever.
Werner's syndrome  premature aging of an adult, with early graying and some hair loss, cataracts, hyperkeratinization, muscular atrophy, scleroderma-like changes in the skin of the limbs, and a high incidence of neoplasm.
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome  a neuropsychiatric disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, most often due to alcohol abuse, combining the features of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome.
whiplash shake syndrome  subdural hematomas, retinal hemorrhage, and sometimes cerebral contusions caused by the stretching and tearing of cerebral vessels and brain substance, sometimes seen when a very young child is shaken vigorously by the limbs or trunk with the head unsupported; paralysis, visual disturbances, blindness, convulsions, and death may result.
Wilson-Mikity syndrome  a rare form of pulmonary insufficiency in low-birth-weight infants, with hyperpnea and cyanosis during the first month of life, sometimes ending in death; there are also radiologic abnormalities.
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome  chronic eczema with chronic suppurative otitis media, anemia, and thrombocytopenic purpura, an immunodeficiency syndrome transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait, with poor antibody response to polysaccharide antigens and dysfunction of cell-mediated immunity.
withdrawal syndrome  substance withdrawal.
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome  a syndrome due to partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4, with microcephaly, ocular hypertelorism, epicanthus, cleft palate, micrognathia, low-set ears simplified in form, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias.
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome  the association of paroxysmal tachycardia (or atrial fibrillation) and preexcitation, in which the electrocardiogram displays a short P–R interval and a wide QRS complex which characteristically shows an early QRS vector (delta wave).
Wyburn-Mason's syndrome  arteriovenous aneurysms on one or both sides of the brain, with ocular anomalies, facial nevi, and sometimes mental retardation.
syndrome X  angina pectoris or angina-like chest pain associated with normal arteriographic appearance of the coronary arteries.
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome  the association of atypical, intractable, sometimes fulminating, peptic ulcers with extreme gastric hyperacidity and benign or malignant gastrinomas in the pancreas.

polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS),
an endocrine disturbance characterized by anovulation, amenorrhea, hirsutism, and infertility. It is caused by increased levels of testosterone, estrogen, and luteinizing hormone (LH) and decreased secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The increased level of LH associated with this disorder may be the result of an increased sensitivity of the pituitary to stimulation by releasing hormone or of excessive stimulation by the adrenal gland. It may also be associated with a variety of problems in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, with extragonadal sources of androgens, or with androgen-producing tumors. This condition is transmitted as an X-linked dominant or autosomal-dominant trait. The depressed but continuous production of FSH associated with this disorder causes continuous partial development of ovarian follicles. Numerous follicular cysts, 2 to 6 mm in diameter, may develop. The affected ovary commonly doubles in size and is invested by a smooth pearly white capsule. The increased level of estrogen associated with this abnormality raises the risk of cancers of the breast and endometrium. Depending on the severity of symptoms and the patient's desire to become pregnant, treatment involves suppression of hormonal stimulation of the ovary, usually by use of female hormones or resection of part of one or both ovaries. Also called hyperandrogenic chronic anovulations, Stein-Leventhal syndrome.

polycystic [pol″e-sis´tik]
containing many cysts.
polycystic kidney disease either of two unrelated hereditary diseases in which there is massive enlargement of the kidney with cyst formation. It occurs in two forms, distinguished by age of onset and other characteristics.

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, formerly called adult polycystic kidney disease) is the most common type of cystic disease of the kidneys. It is usually manifested during the third decade of life. Renal failure may appear by the fifth decade, with terminal failure occurring in the next ten years, although in some cases it never appears. Although there is rarely any liver dysfunction accompanying this disorder, cyst formation in the liver does occur.

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), formerly called childhood polycystic kidney disease, is diagnosed at birth or in the first ten years of life and is much less common than the autosomal dominant form. Both the kidney and the liver are involved, causing renal failure and liver failure with portal hypertension. Characteristic symptoms early in the process include pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, kidney stones, and obstructive uropathy with anuria.

Treatment of both types of polycystic kidney disease is largely symptomatic. Renal dialysis and kidney transplantation during end-stage renal disease can prolong life but offer no cure. Families with histories of polycystic kidney disease require genetic counseling and may need help in coping with the prospect of future offspring afflicted with the disease.
polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) a clinical symptom complex associated with polycystic ovaries and characterized by oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, anovulation (hence infertility), and hirsutism. Both hyperestrogenism (from peripheral conversion of androgen) and hyperandrogenism are present. Excretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and 17-ketosteroids is normal, but infertility is usually persistent, requiring treatment with wedge resection, clomiphene, or gonadotropins. Called also Stein-Leventhal syndrome.
polycystic renal disease polycystic kidney disease.

pol·y·cys·tic o·va·ry syn·drome (PCOS), [MIM*184700]
a condition commonly characterized by hirsutism, obesity, menstrual abnormalities, infertility, insulin resistance, and enlarged ovaries; commonly associated with insulin resistance and thought to reflect excessive androgen secretion of ovarian origin. Women with PCOS are frequently at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and breast cancer.
Synonym(s): sclerocystic disease of the ovary, Stein-Leventhal syndrome

pol·y·cys·tic o·va·ry syn·drome (pol'ē-sis'tik ō'văr-ē sin'drōm)
A condition commonly characterized by signs of masculinization such as hirsutism, as well as obesity, menstrual abnormalities, infertility, and enlarged ovaries; thought to reflect excessive androgen secretion of ovarian origin.
See also: polycystic ovary

Stein, Irving Freiler, Sr., U.S. gynecologist, 1887–.
Stein-Leventhal syndrome - a condition commonly characterized by hirsutism, obesity, menstrual abnormalities, infertility, and enlarged ovaries. Synonym(s): polycystic ovary syndrome


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