Horner's syndrome


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

Horner's syndrome

Etymology: Johann F. Horner, Swiss ophthalmologist, 1831-1886
a neurological condition characterized by a constricted (miotic) pupil, ptosis, and facial anhidrosis, associated with a lesion in the spinal cord, with damage to a cervical nerve or any ascending part of the sympathetic outflow to the face/head. Signs are ipsilateral (same side) to the injury.
enlarge picture
Horner's syndrome: ptosis of the right eyelid

Horner's syndrome

The association, on one side, of a drooping upper eyelid, an apparently slightly sunken eyeball, a pupil reduced in size compared with the other, and absence of sweating on the same side of the face. This syndrome is an indication that certain nerves in the neck have been damaged, possibly by cancer. (Johann Friedrich Horner, 1831–1886, Swiss ophthalmologist)

Horner's syndrome

enophthalmos, ptosis of the upper eyelid, slight elevation of the lower lid, constriction of the pupil, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure caused by paralysis of the cervical sympathetic nerve supply.
Enlarge picture
Horner's syndrome. By permission from Nelson RW, Couto CG, Small Animal Internal Medicine, Mosby, 2003

first order (central) H's s
caused by lesions within the parenchyma of the brain or spinal cord, before the synapse of sympathetic fibers within gray matter of thoracic segments T1 to T3.
second order (peripheral) H's s
involves the sympathetic trunk from its origin at T2 to T4 to the cranial cervical ganglion.
third order H's s
involves sympathetic fibers distal to the cranial cervical ganglion. Middle and inner ear disease can affect these fibers, which pass close to the tympanic bulla.
References in periodicals archive ?
Two case series (1,2) identified neoplastic disease as the most common cause of Horner's syndrome.
Horner's syndrome has many possible aetiologies that can involve a lesion anywhere in the course of the sympathetic tract from hypothalamus to brainstem and upper thoracic cord, sympathetic trunk, stellate ganglion, carotid artery and, finally, long ciliary nerve to the eye.
Horner's syndrome is characterised by unilateral miosis, which occurs due to the unopposed constriction of the sphincter pupillae muscle.
Horner's syndrome results only from involvement of the sympathetic tract at the long ciliary tract to the eye.
A Pubmed search combining each of these drugs with Horner's syndrome was conducted to ensure that recent, relevant evidence is included in the discussion of each drug.
8 mm after the instillation of topical cocaine 10% in both eyes gave an odds ratio of 1 050:1 that Horner's syndrome was present.
Cocaine 4% is superior to apraclonidine in the diagnosis of Horner's syndrome.
In this instance, the differential diagnosis is between physiological (simple) anisocoria and Horner's syndrome.
Topical apraclonidine has been shown to have many advantages over the conventional use of topical cocaine 4% in confirming the presence of Horner's syndrome.
Due to the close proximity of the internal carotid artery to the sympathetic plexus, 50% of patients will get an ipsilateral Horner's syndrome (Figure 2) and reduced blood flow to other parts of the brain may result in focal neurological signs (ie limb weakness on the opposite side, speech disturbance and visual field loss) if not recognised early.