14] It has been proposed that HIV may become adsorbed to DC-SIGN on Hofbauer cells and/or infect Hofbauer cells.
DC-SIGN expression was noted in Hofbauer cells (Fig.
The Hofbauer cells have also been shown to be human leukocyte antigen (HLA) II+ , CD68+, CD14 low+, [CD4.
This is based on the obstetrical ultrasound evidence of an initial decrease in the relative percentile of fetal head growth documented at 16 weeks' gestation, and the extent of Hofbauer cell hyperplasia in the chorionic villi with relatively few stromal macrophages in the proliferative stage of the cell cycle by the time of delivery of the fetus and placenta.
We have demonstrated that 9 weeks after initial maternal symptomatology and prolonged maternal viremia, the placenta still had detectable Zika virus present within stromal (Hofbauer) cells of the chorionic villi together with Hofbauer cell hyperplasia.
It is still not well understood what role(s) the Hofbauer cell has in facilitating or inhibiting transplacental transmission of infectious agents such as the Zika virus.
Right upper corner, villous maturation appropriate for gestational age with chorangiosis and decreased extracellular matrix and increased Hofbauer cells.
Croup 1 328 cases with preuterine hypoxic pattern: Diffuse hypervascularity and: homogeneous villous maturation, decreaced extracellular matrix of chorionic villi, increased numbers of Hofbauer cells and syncytial knots Group 2 297 cases with uterine hypoxic pattern: Focal hypervascularity and: heterogeneous villous maturation, decreased extracellular matrix of chorionic villi, increased numbers of Hofbauer cells and syncytial knots Group 3 606 cases with pure chorangiosis (diffuse or focal): No other villous histologic features of preuterine or uterine patterns of chronic hypoxic placental injury
82) Immunohistochemical detection of ZIKV in maternal leukocytes, Hofbauer cells, and fetal endothelial cells, along with demonstration of ZIKV replication in primary human placental macrophages in vitro, suggests transfer across the syncytiotrophoblast as the major route of fetal ZIKV infection.
D, Immunostaining of ZIKV antigen in Hofbauer cells and villous stroma of placenta from a miscarriage at 8 weeks' gestation (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnifications x200 [A] and x400 [B]; original magnifications x200 [C] and x400 [D]).
Villous Hofbauer cells synthesize proteins that stimulate a villous proliferation in response to hypoxia.
47) Heterogeneous placental hypermaturity, with only focally increased villous vascularity, villous cytotrophoblast density, Hofbauer cells, and nonapoptotic syncytial knotting, and a decreased extracellular matrix of chorionic villi are the characteristic features.