a suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, or rickettsiae), administered for prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious diseases.
a cell-free protein extract of cultures of Bacillus anthracis,
used for immunization against anthrax
attenuated vaccine a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms or viruses cultured under adverse conditions, leading to loss of their virulence but retention of their ability to induce protective immunity.
autogenous vaccine a vaccine prepared from microorganisms which have been freshly isolated from the lesion of the patient who is to be treated with it.
bacterial vaccine a preparation of killed or attenuated bacteria used as an active immunizing agent.
a preparation of killed Vibrio cholerae,
administered intradermally, subcutaneously, or intramuscularly for immunization against cholera
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine
DTP vaccine: a combination of diphtheria
and tetanus toxoids
and pertussis vaccine
; administered intramuscularly for simultaneous immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough. When the pertussis vaccine is an acellular form, the combination may be abbreviated DTaP
Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine
(HbCV) a preparation of Haemophilus influenzae
type b capsular polysaccharide covalently bound to diphtheria toxoid
or to a specific diphtheria protein, meningococcal protein, or tetanus protein; it stimulates both B and T lymphocyte responses and is much more immunogenic than the polysaccharide vaccine. Administered intramuscularly as a routine immunizing agent in infants and young children.
Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccine
(HbPV) a preparation of highly purified capsular polysaccharide derived from Haemophilus influenzae
type b, which stimulates an immune response
in B lymphocytes only; administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously as an immunizing agent in children ages 18 months to 5 years.
hepatitis A vaccine inactivated
an inactivated whole virus vaccine derived from an attenuated strain of hepatitis A virus
grown in cell culture; administered intramuscularly.
hepatitis B vaccine
a preparation of hepatitis B surface antigen
, derived either from human plasma of carriers of hepatitis B (hepatitis B vaccine inactivated)
or from cloning in yeast cells (hepatitis B vaccine [recombinant]);
heterologous vaccine a vaccine that confers protective immunity against a pathogen that shares cross-reacting antigens with the microorganisms in the vaccine.
human diploid cell vaccine rabies vaccine
prepared from rabies virus grown in cultures of human diploid embryo lung cells and inactivated; administered intramuscularly or intradermally.
live vaccine a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms that have been attenuated but retain their immunogenic properties.
Lyme disease vaccine (recombinant OspA)
a preparation of outer surface protein A (OspA), a cell surface lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi,
produced by recombinant technology; administered intramuscularly for active immunization against lyme disease
measles and rubella virus vaccine live
a combination of live attenuated measles
and rubella viruses
, administered subcutaneously for simultaneous immunization against measles
meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
a preparation of a capsular antigen of Neisseria meningitidis,
administered subcutaneously to provide immunity to meningitis
a preparation of killed Bordetella pertussis
bacilli (whole-cell vaccine) or of purified antigenic components thereof (acellular vaccine), used to immunize against pertussis
; generally used in combination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP
a preparation of killed Yersinia pestis
bacilli, administered intramuscularly as an active immunizing agent against plague
pneumococcal heptavalent conjugate vaccine
a preparation of capsular polysaccharides from the seven serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae
most commonly isolated from children 6 years of age or younger, coupled to a nontoxic variant of diphtheria toxin
; used as an active immunizing agent for infants and children at risk for pneumococcal disease, administered intramuscularly.
pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent
a preparation of purified capsular polysaccharides from the 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae
causing the majority of pneumococcal disease; used as an active immunizing agent in persons over 2 years of age, administered intramuscularly.
poliovirus vaccine inactivated
(IPV) a preparation of killed polioviruses
of three types, given in a series of intramuscular or subcutaneous injections to immunize against poliomyelitis
. It does not induce intestinal immunity and so is not effective for poliovirus eradication in areas where wild-type polioviruses still exist in large numbers. However, it does not cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and so is preferred for routine immunization in areas where the risk of infection by a wild-type poliovirus is very low, as in the United States. Called also Salk vaccine
poliovirus vaccine live oral
(OPV) an oral vaccine against poliomyelitis
consisting of three types of live, attenuated polioviruses. It is given orally, often on a sugar cube, and so is convenient for administration to children and large groups of people. It induces both humoral and intestinal immunity, so is useful for immunization and poliomyelitis eradication in areas where wild-type polioviruses have not been eradicated. However, it can cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in persons newly vaccinated with it and their contacts, which is considered an unjustifiable risk in countries such as the United States, where the risk of exposure to wild-type polioviruses is very low. Thus, for routine immunization in the United States, it has been superseded by poliovirus vaccine inactivated
. Called also Sabin vaccine
polyvalent vaccine a vaccine prepared from cultures or antigens of more than one strain or species.
purified chick embryo cell vaccine
an inactivated virus vaccine used for pre- and postexposure rabies
immunization, prepared from rabies virus grown in cultures of chicken fibroblasts; administered intramuscularly.
rabies vaccine adsorbed
(RVA) a rabies vaccine
prepared from rabies virus
grown in cultures of fetal rhesus monkey lung and inactivated; administered intramuscularly.
rotavirus vaccine live oral
a live virus vaccine produced from a mixture of four types of rotavirus
, used to immunize infants against rotaviral gastroenteritis
rubella and mumps virus vaccine live
a combination of live attenuated rubella
and mumps viruses
, administered subcutaneously for simultaneous immunization against rubella
subunit vaccine a vaccine produced from specific protein subunits of a virus and thus having less risk of adverse reactions than whole virus vaccines.
any of several preparations of Salmonella typhi
used for immunization against typhoid fever
, including a parenteral heat- and phenol-inactivated bacteria vaccine, an oral live vaccine prepared from the attenuated strain Ty21a, and a parenteral vaccine prepared from typhoid Vi capsular polysaccharide.
yellow fever vaccine
a preparation of attenuated yellow fever virus, used to immunize against yellow fever