Hawthorne effect


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Related to Hawthorne effect: placebo effect, Hawthorne studies

effect

 [ĕ-fekt´]
a result produced by an action.
additive effect the combined effect produced by the action of two or more agents, being equal to the sum of their separate effects.
adverse effect a symptom produced by a drug or therapy that is injurious to the patient.
Bainbridge effect Bainbridge reflex.
Bohr effect decreased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen caused by an increase of carbon dioxide; the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve is displaced to the right because of higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide and lower pH. See also Haldane effect.
The Bohr effect causing a shift to the right in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve.
Crabtree effect the inhibition of oxygen consumption on the addition of glucose to tissues or microorganisms having a high rate of aerobic glycolysis; the converse of the Pasteur effect.
cumulative effect the action of a drug or treatment resulting from repeated use.
Doppler effect see doppler effect.
experimenter e's demand characteristics.
extrapyramidal e's the side effects caused by neuroleptic medications, including dystonias, parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia.
Haldane effect increased oxygenation of hemoglobin promotes dissociation of carbon dioxide; see also Bohr effect.
Hawthorne effect a psychological response in which the subjects in a research study change their behavior simply because they are subjects in a study, not because of the research treatment.
heel effect variation in x-ray beam intensity and projected focal spot size along the long axis of the x-ray tube from cathode to anode.
parallax effect the position of the image on each emulsion of dual emulsion film; it is accentuated by tube-angled x-ray techniques.
Pasteur effect the decrease in the rate of glycolysis and the suppression of lactate accumulation by tissues or microorganisms in the presence of oxygen.
photoelectric effect ejection of electrons from matter as a result of interaction with photons from high frequency electromagnetic radiation, such as x-rays; the ejected electrons may be energetic enough to ionize multiple additional atoms.
placebo effect the total of all nonspecific effects, both good and adverse, of treatment; it refers primarily to psychological and psychophysiological effects associated with the caregiver-patient relationship and the patient's expectations and apprehensions concerning the treatment. See also placebo.
position effect in genetics, the changed effect produced by alteration of the relative positions of various genes on the chromosomes.
pressure effect the sum of the changes that are due to obstruction of tissue drainage by pressure.
proarrhythmic effect any new, more advanced form of arrhythmia caused by an antiarrhythmic agent, especially those that produce hemodynamically important symptoms. These arrhythmias occur less than 30 days after initiation of treatment and are not due to a new event such as acute myocardial infarction or hypokalemia.
side effect a consequence other than that for which an agent is used, especially an adverse effect on another organ system.
Somogyi effect see somogyi effect.

Haw·thorne ef·fect

(haw'thōrn),
the effect (usually positive or beneficial) of being under study, on the people being studied; their knowledge of the study often influences their behavior.
[city in Illinois; site of the Western Electric plant]

Hawthorne effect

[hô′thôrn]
a general unintentional, usually beneficial, effect on a person, a group of people, or the function of the system being studied. It is the effect of an encounter, as with an investigator or health care provider, or of a change in a program or facility, as by painting of an office or change in the lighting system. The Hawthorne effect is likely to confound the results of a study or investigation because it is usually present and difficult to identify. It was named for a study in industrial management at the Hawthorne (Illinois) facility of the Western Electric Company.
A beneficial effect that health care providers have on workers in most settings when an interest is shown in the workers’ well-being and performance, irrespective of whether or not the intervention was a good one

Hawthorne effect

Psychology A beneficial effect that health care providers have on workers in most settings when an interest is shown in the workers' well-being. See Halo effect, Placebo effect, Placebo response. Cf Nocebo.

Haw·thorne ef·fect

(haw'thōrn e-fekt')
Reaction (usually positive or beneficial) of being under study, on the people being studied; their knowledge of the study often influences their behavior.
[city in Illinois]

Hawthorne effect

an improvement in performance due to changes in environmental conditions regardless of the nature of the changes. Named after an electricity company's plant in the US where a series of studies was conducted in the 1920s into the effects of variations in environmental conditions on workers' performance and productivity. In experimental design the term is often used to describe a threat to validity whereby participants' performance on a task improves due to them feeling that the experimenter shows concern for them.
References in periodicals archive ?
This finding raised the question as to whether our study field procedures had resulted in a Hawthorne effect on antibiotic prescribing rates for viral conditions.
To our knowledge, no studies of the Hawthorne effect have examined whether subjects in noninterventional observational studies, who are not directly informed about the outcomes of interest, change their behavior during the observation period with regard to those outcomes.
Although previous investigators have postulated that a perceived demand for improved performance or outcomes may be required for the Hawthorne effect to have a significant impact (Campbell, Maxey, and Watson 1995), the results of the current study indicate that this may not be the case.
Thus we believe the observed changes in bacterial diagnosis rates represent a true Hawthorne effect.
The magnitude of the Hawthorne effect observed in the current study was similar to the percentage improvement observed in a recent intervention trial designed to decrease antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis in adult patients (29 percent versus 26 percent) (Gonzales et al.
In either case, this study offers some possible insights into the mechanisms that mediate the Hawthorne effect In the case of antibiotic prescribing for URIs, the large Hawthorne effect may reflect the substantial role that nonmedical factors play in treatment decisions, and the minimal risk that accompanies inappropriate antibiotic treatment at the individual level during a particular encounter.
Impact of the Hawthorne Effect in a Longitudinal Clinical Study: The Case of Anesthesia" Controlled Clinical Trialrs 2l (2): 103-14.
The discrepancy found between the Hawthorne Effect control group ratings (C3) and the classroom control group ratings (C4) leads to two important educational implications.
As a writer, Hawthorne effects his "meaning" with similar multivalence, a simultaneous layering of motifs, references, imagery and allusions.
Hawthorne effects may occur, where the response of those taking part is partly due to the fact that it is a demonstration or pilot and someone is taking an interest in them.
Love and compassion are what medicine sometimes calls the placebo and Hawthorne effects.