virus infection may induce hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), presenting with fever and acute kidney injury.
The last possible limitation is that serum samples from PUUV-infected patients cross-react strongly with Sin Nombre virus and weakly with Hantaan
virus, Seoul virus, and Dobrava virus (36,37).
The Eurosurveillance report states: "In January 2013, a male patient in North Wales suffering from acute kidney injury and clinically presenting with haemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome, tested seropositive for Seoul (SEOV) and Hantaan
Epidemic hemorrhagic fever is caused by the Hantaan
virus and has an incubation period of a few days to four weeks, according to Hong Kong's Health Department.
For example, researchers track Hantaan
virus using rats (Childs et al.
Vascular endothelial cell can be directly infected by several viruses like dengue, herpes viruses, measles, mumps, HTLV-1, HIV, marburg, ebola and hantaan
viruses and that theses viruses can cause vasculitis3.
There are 4 known rodent-borne hantaviruses in the ROK: Hantaan
virus (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever (KHF)), Seoul virus, Soochong virus, and Muju virus.
The Old World hantaviruses Dobrava (DOBV), Puumala (PUUV), and Tula (TULV) cause HFRS in Europe (6-8), whereas Hantaan
virus (HNTV) and Seoul virus (SEOV) are the most prominent HFRS pathogens in Asia (9).
Four pathogenic types for humans and some of the Bunyaviridae family are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the Sin Nombre virus (SNV), which is responsible for the severe American respiratory form; the Hantaan
and Seoul viruses, which are responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (HFRS) of severe-to-moderate expression in Asia and the Balkans; and the Puumala virus, which is responsible for HFRS of moderate expression or the nephropathia epidemica in Europe.
A new diagnostic screen for detection of Ebola Zaire, Ebola Sudan, Marburg, Lassa virus, Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Hantaan
, Seoul, yellow fever, and Kyasanur Forest Disease viruses offers sensitivity and speed by simultaneously considering multiple agents, thereby reducing the time needed for differential diagnosis.
Serological and Virological Evidence of a Hantaan
Virus-Related Enzootic in the United States.
Geissler, supra note 11, at 29 (listing other biological warfare agents including: Chikungunya virus; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Hantaan
(Korean hemorrhagic fever) virus; Monkeypox virus; Rift Valley fever virus; Western equine encephalitis; White pox virus; Yellow fever virus; Junin (Argentinian hemorrhagic fever) virus); see also 42 C.