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Background The normal vertebral facet (apophyseal) joint space looks like a hamburger on axial CT: the superior articular process of the vertebra below forms a semicircular 'bun' atop the 'meat patty’; the inferior articular process of the vertebra above forms the bun beneath the patty. In facet joint dislocation, the articular facets are uncovered: the ‘hamburger bun’—the superior articular facet—lies posteriorly. The sign may be either unilateral if the facet dislocation is unilateral or bilateral if the dislocation is bilateral
Aetiology Flexion-distraction injury; a positive hamburger sign indicates severe ligamentous disruption and spinal instability
sign(sin) [L. signum, a mark, token]
1. A symbol or abbreviation, esp. one used in pharmacy.
2. Any objective evidence or manifestation of an illness or disordered function of the body. Signs are apparent to observers, whereas symptoms may be obvious only to the patient. See: symptom
3. To use sign language to communicate.
1 Abadie signSee: 1 Abadie sign
2 Abadie signSee: 2 Abadie sign
Ahlfeld signSee: Ahlfeld sign
air bronchogram sign
Radiographic appearance of an air-filled bronchus as it passes through an area of increased anatomic density, as in pulmonary edema and pneumonia.
Allis signSee: Allis, Oscar Huntington
Amoss signSee: Amoss sign
anterior drawer signAnterior drawer test.
Auenbrugger signSee: Auenbrugger sign
Aufrecht signSee: Aufrecht sign
Auspitz signSee: Auspitz sign
Babinski signSee: Babinski, Joseph-François-Felix.
Battle signSee: Battle sign
beaten-silver skull sign
The thinned, irregular appearance of the skull, as seen on x-ray examination of children with obstructive hydrocephalus.
belly dancer sign
Movement of the umbilicus of the newborn while breathing. It is a rarely observed physical finding in newborn infants born with paralysis of one half of the diaphragm.
Bjerrum signSee: Bjerrum, Jannik Petersen
Beevor signSee: Beevor sign
Bloomberg signRebound tenderness.
Branham signSee: Branham sign
Broadbent signSee: Broadbent sign
Brudzinski signSee: Brudzinski sign
Bryant signSee: Bryant sign
Cardarelli signSee: Cardarelli sign
Carnett signSee: Carnett sign
Carvallo signSee: Carvallo sign
Castell signSee: Castell sign
Chadwick signSee: Chadwick sign
Intense pelvic and lower abdominal pain brought on by palpation of the cervix. The sign points to the presence of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Chapman signSee: Chapman sign
Chvostek signSee: Chvostek sign
Cleeman signSee: Cleeman sign
Comolli signSee: Comolli sign
Coopernail signSee: Coopernail sign
corona radiata sign
Filaments extending outward from a radiographically visualized mass. The presence of such filaments suggests that the mass is growing centrifugally and therefore may be malignant.
Courvoisier signSee: Courvoisier, Ludwig Georg
Cullen signSee: Cullen sign
Dance signSee: Dance sign
Darier signSee: Darier, Ferdinand Jean
Davidsohn signSee: Davidsohn sign
de Musset signSee: Musset sign
A sign to differentiate dermatofibroma, a benign lesion, from nodular melanoma, which it may mimic. On application of lateral pressure with the thumb and index finger, the dermatofibroma becomes dimpled or indented, whereas melanomas, melanocytic nevi, and normal skin protrude above the initial plane.
Dorendorf signSee: Dorendorf sign
drawer signDrawer test. See: anterior drawer test
Repetition of the closing word of a sentence, a sign of epilepsy or other brain conditions.
Faget signSee: Faget sign
fallen lung sign
The radiologic appearance of traumatic transection or rupture of the trachea or a main stem bronchus, consisting of a collapsed lung that seems to dangle from the hilum by only its vascular attachments. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema are sometimes seen with tracheobronchial tears.
A peculiar change in hair color in which the hair becomes discolored in a band perpendicular to its long axis. This is seen in kwashiorkor and indicates a period of severe malnutrition.
Rapid back and forth movement of the hand and fingers when patients experience painful symptoms in them. The finding is an imprecise and unreliable physical diagnostic sign in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.
Frank signSee: Frank sign
Friedreich signSee: Friedreich, Nikolaus
Froment signSee: Froment sign
Galeazzi signSee: Galeazzi sign
Gauss signSee: Gauss sign
Goodell signSee: Goodell sign
Gottron signSee: Gottron sign
Gowers signSee: Gowers, Sir William Richard
Grancher signSee: Grancher sign
Grey Turner signSee: Grey Turner sign
Guyon signSee: Guyon, Felix J.C.
hair collar sign
In the newborn, a ring of long, dark, coarse hair surrounding a midline nodule on the scalp. This may indicate neural tube closure defect.
hamburger signNaked facet sign.
A benign, transient color change seen in neonates in which one half of the body blanches while the other half becomes redder, with a clear line of demarcation.
Hatchcock signSee: Hatchcock sign
Hegar signSee: Hegar sign
Hicks signSee: Hicks sign
Hill signSee: Hill sign
Hochsinger signSee: Hochsinger sign
Poikiloderma of the upper outer thigh. It is a characteristic finding in patients with dermatomyositis.
Homans signSee: Homans sign
Hoover signSee: Hoover sign
Jacquemier signSee: Jacquemier sign
jersey finger sign
The inability to flex the distal interphalangeal joint of a finger as the result of a rupture of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon. The patient is unable to make a fist.
During physical examination, an involuntary reaction to stimulation of a tender area or trigger point. This may take the form of wincing or sudden jerking of the part being examined, of adjacent areas, or even of the entire body. This sign should not be confused with the startle reaction seen in Jumping Frenchmen of Maine.
Kehr signSee: Kehr sign
Kernig signSee: Kernig sign
Korányi signSee: Korányi sign
Kussmaul signSee: Kussmaul, Adolph
SEE:See: Lasègue sign
Lazarus signSee: Lazarus sign
Scalloping of the frontal bones of the fetus, a sign in prenatal ultrasonography in which the bones resemble the shape of a lemon. It is indicative of fetal cranial abnormalities found in the second trimester that can be markers for a neural tube defect.
Levine signSee: Levine sign
Lhermitte signSee: Lhermitte sign
Mannkopf signSee: Mannkopf sign
Marie signSee: Marie, Pierre Marie
Markle signSee: Markle sign
Mayne signSee: Mayne sign
McBurney signSee: McBurney, Charles
McMurray signSee: McMurray, Thomas Porter
Möbius signSee: Möbius, Paul Julius
Murphy signSee: Murphy, John Benjamin
Musset signSee: Musset sign
Myerson signSee: Myerson sign
naked facet sign
The radiographic appearance of spinal facet joints that have been disrupted by flexion injuries to the thoracic or lumbar spine. CT scanning of the joints shows that the inferior facets of the upper vertebrae are not directly aligned above the superior facets of the lower vertebrae.Synonym: hamburger sign
Minus sign (-) used in subtraction to denote something that is below zero or to indicate a lack.
NFL touchdown signTouchdown sign.
Nikolsky signSee: Nikolsky sign
In physical diagnosis, a sign that can be seen, heard, measured, or felt by the diagnostician. Finding of such sign(s) can be used to confirm or deny the diagnostician's impressions of the suspected disease.Synonym: physical sign
Pain on inward rotation of the hip, which stretches the obturator internus muscle. The result may be positive in acute appendicitis.
Oliver signSee: Oliver sign
orbicular sign, orbicularis signRévilliod sign.
physical signObjective sign.
Pins signSee: Pins sign
Popeye signSee: Popeye sign.
positive signs of pregnancy
Assessment findings present only during pregnancy: fetal heart tones, fetal movements felt by the examiner, and fetal visualization by sonogram.
postural vital signs
Measurement of the blood pressure and pulse when a patient is first lying, then sitting, and finally standing. See: orthostatic vital signs determination.
Potain signSee: Potain, Pierre Charles Édouard
Pratt signSee: Pratt sign
Prehn signSee: Prehn sign
presumptive sign of pregnancy
Any of the signs and symptoms commonly associated with pregnancy that may be present in other conditions.See: pregnancy
probable sign of pregnancy
Any of the objective findings that strongly suggest but do not confirm pregnancy.See: pregnancy
Abdominal pain produced by extension of the hip. The sign indicates a retrocecal or retroperitoneal lesion.
Queckenstedt signSee: Queckenstedt sign
Queen Anne signSee: Queen Anne sign
Periorbital ecchymosis. It may be present in patients who have a basilar skull fracture.
Raimiste signRaimiste phenomenon.
Ransohoff signSee: Ransohoff sign
Remak signSee: Remak sign
Révilliod signSee: Révilliod sign
Ripault signSee: Ripault sign
Romana signSee: Romana sign
Romberg signSee: Romberg sign
Rosenbach signSee: Rosenbach, Ottomar
Rovsing signSee: Rovsing sign
Scarf signSee: Scarf sign
Schamroth signSee: Schamroth sign
scrotal sign of BryantBryant sign.
The presence of pigmented skin overlying the neck, upper back, and shoulders. It is a characteristic finding in patients with dermatomyositis.
Any of a number of signs that, considered collectively, are felt to indicate the presence of damage to the central nervous system. These signs include incoordination, visual motor difficulties, nystagmus, the presence of associated movements, and difficulties with motor control.
solar eclipse sign
The appearance of an intussusception on a barium enema when the encircling bowel is seen in line with the ensheathed bowel lumen. The cylindrical ring of the intussusception captures radiographic contrast and resembles the corona seen around the sun during a solar eclipse.
spinnaker sail sign
An outline of the thymus of a child by radiolucent lines. It is seen on chest x-ray examinations of children with pneumomediastinum.
Stabler signSee: Stabler sign
Narrowing of the column of subglottic air in the trachea, seen on anteroposterior radiographs of the neck in children with croup.
Stellwag signSee: Stellwag sign
In gastrointestinal radiology, extreme narrowing of a segment of the terminal ileum (in Crohn disease) or of the pylorus (in congenital pyloric stenosis).
Strümpell signSee: Strümpell, Adolf G. G. von
An assessment finding often associated with hydrocephaly in newborns; the newborn's eyes are open with the irises directed downward, resembling the sun setting below the horizon.
Tanyoz signSee: Tanyoz sign
Tarnier signSee: Tarnier sign
Pain in the anterior knee that is felt after prolonged sitting. It is a symptom sometimes reported by patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Protrusion of the thumb across the palm and beyond the clenched fist; seen in Marfan syndrome.
Tinel signSee: Tinel sign
Inability to raise the arms overhead, a finding in patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.Synonym: overhead arm raise test
Tournay signSee: Tournay sign
Trendelenburg signSee: Trendelenburg sign
Trousseau signSee: Trousseau, Armand
Uhthoff signSee: Uhthoff sign
The four physical signs concerning functions essential to life: pulse, rate of respiration, blood pressure, and temperature. Some health care professionals consider a patient's level of pain to be a fifth vital sign although this is not accepted by all parties. While all health care professionals agree that a patient's experience of pain is a critical feature of his or her adaptation to illness, the traditional vital signs are objectively measurable and verifiable, while the level of pain is considered by many to be experiential or subjective.