hemocytolysis

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hemolysis

 [he-mol´ĭ-sis]
rupture of erythrocytes with release of hemoglobin into the plasma. Some microbes form substances called hemolysins that have the specific action of destroying red blood cells; the beta-hemolytic streptococcus is an example. Intravenous administration of a hypotonic solution or plain distilled water will also destroy red blood cells by causing them to fill with fluid until their membranes rupture.

In a transfusion reaction or in erythroblastosis fetalis, incompatibility causes the red blood cells to clump together. The agglutinated cells become trapped in the smaller vessels and eventually disintegrate, releasing hemoglobin into the plasma. Kidney damage may result as the hemoglobin crystallizes and obstructs the renal tubules, producing renal shutdown and uremia.

Snake venoms and vegetable poisons such as mushrooms may also cause hemolysis. A great variety of chemical agents can lead to destruction of erythrocytes if there is exposure to a sufficiently high concentration of the substance. These chemical hemolytics include arsenic, lead, benzene, acetanilid, nitrites, and potassium chlorate.

he·mo·cy·tol·y·sis

(hē'mō-sī-tol'i-sis),
The dissolution of blood cells, including hemolysis.
Synonym(s): hematocytolysis
[hemo- + G. kytos, cell, + lysis, dissolution]

he·mo·cy·tol·y·sis

(hē'mō-sī-tol'i-sis)
The dissolution of blood cells, including hemolysis.
Synonym(s): haemocytolysis.
[hemo- + G. kytos, cell, + lysis, dissolution]

hemocytolysis