Previous studies suggest that it circulates between canopy-dwelling mosquitoes of the genus Haemagogus
and nonhuman primates (6,21).
podographicus (2), Psorophora ferox (1), and Haemagogus
equinus (1) (Fig.
It is caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV) that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the Aedes or Haemagogus
mosquitoes (Lindenbach 2007).
Just as in Haemagogus
capricornii Lutz and Haemagogus
janthinomys Dyar populations in Brazil, the molecular and morphological diversity of An.
Dorville (1996), baseando-se nestas alteracoes, propos a utilizacao de determinadas especies de Culicidae como indicadoras do grau alto de degradacao ambiental, e aponta quatro grupos como bioindicadores: Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii Dyar & Knab, 1908, em ambientes florestais preservados, Aedes scapularis (Rondani, 1848) e tribo Mansoniini em ambientes altamente alterados, e especies que se desenvolvem em ocos de arvores, denominadas THB ("tree-hole breeders"), como por exemplo, Haemagogus
e Microculex em ambientes intermediarios.
Later in the '70s lateral transmission was confirmed for the indigenous New World mosquito host, Haemagogus
The virus is maintained in a natural cycle involving nonhuman primates and Haemagogus
The presumed primary vectors, Haemagogus
mosquitoes, inhabit rural settings and tree canopies, a factor that may explain the relative paucity of cases and restricted endemicity.
Clinical cases and virus isolation have been reported only from northern South America, where MAYV circulates in an enzootic sylvatic cycle (similar to that for yellow fever) involving forest-dwelling Haemagogus
After its discovery, the virus was also isolated from other mosquito species, including the genera Culex, Sabethes, Haemagogus
, and Trichoprosopon, and from a variety of birds in different countries in Latin America (2).
In South America, the urban cycle involves the mosquito Aedes aegypti and humans, whereas in the jungle cycle, the virus is transmitted to nonhuman primates by mosquitoes in the genera Haemagogus
and Sabethes, especially Hg.
Of these, 188 (11 lots) were Haemagogus
janthinomys, the main vector of MAYV; the remaining 644 (38 lots) were mainly members of the genera Wyeomyia, Aedes, Sabethes, and Limatus.