HIV-associated nephropathy


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nephropathy

 [nĕ-frop´ah-the]
1. any disease of the kidneys. adj., adj nephropath´ic.
2. any disease of the kidneys; see also nephritis. Called also nephrosis. adj., adj nephropath´ic.
AIDS nephropathy former name for HIV-associated nephropathy.
analgesic nephropathy interstitial nephritis with renal papillary necrosis, seen in patients with a history of abuse of analgesics such as aspirin or acetaminophen alone or in combination.
diabetic nephropathy the nephropathy that commonly accompanies later stages of diabetes mellitus; it begins with hyperfiltration, renal hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and hypertension; in time proteinuria develops, with other signs of decreasing function leading to end-stage renal disease.
gouty nephropathy any of a group of chronic kidney diseases associated with the abnormal production and excretion of uric acid.
heavy metal nephropathy the kidney damage resulting from any of various forms of heavy metal poisoning, usually in the form of tubulointerstitial nephritis. The most common metals involved are cadmium, lead, and mercury.
HIV-associated nephropathy renal pathology in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, similar to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, with proteinuria, enlarged kidneys, and dilated tubules containing proteinaceous casts; it may progress to end-stage renal disease within weeks.
hypokalemic nephropathy nephropathy with hypokalemia, interstitial nephritis, swelling and vacuolization of proximal renal tubules, and progressive renal failure, resulting from conditions such as oncotic overloading of the kidney filtration mechanisms by sugars. See also potassium-losing nephropathy.
IgA nephropathy a chronic form marked by hematuria and proteinuria and by deposits of IgA immunoglobulin in the mesangial areas of the renal glomeruli, with subsequent reactive hyperplasia of mesangial cells. Called also Berger's disease and IgA glomerulonephritis.
ischemic nephropathy nephropathy resulting from partial or complete obstruction of a renal artery with ischemia, accompanied by a significant reduction in the glomerular filtration rate.
lead nephropathy the kidney damage that accompanies lead poisoning; lead deposits appear in the epithelium of the proximal tubules and as nuclear inclusions in cells. In time this leads to tubulointerstitial nephritis with chronic renal failure and other symptoms.
membranous nephropathy membranous glomerulonephritis.
minimal change nephropathy minimal change disease.
obstructive nephropathy nephropathy caused by obstruction of the urinary tract (usually the ureter), with hydronephrosis, slowing of the glomerular filtration rate, and tubular abnormalities.
potassium-losing nephropathy hypokalemic nephropathy after persistent potassium loss; it may be seen in metabolic alkalosis, adrenocortical hormone excess, or in intrinsic renal disease such as renal tubular acidosis or hyperplasia of juxtaglomerular cells. Called also potassium-losing nephritis.
reflux nephropathy childhood pyelonephritis in which the renal scarring results from vesicoureteric reflux, with radiological appearance of intrarenal reflux.
salt-losing nephropathy intrinsic renal disease causing abnormal urinary sodium loss in persons ingesting normal amounts of sodium chloride, with vomiting, dehydration, and vascular collapse. Called also salt-losing nephritis.
urate nephropathy (uric acid nephropathy) any of a group of kidney diseases occurring in patients with hyperuricemia, including an acute form, a chronic form (gouty nephropathy), and nephrolithiasis with formation of uric acid calculi.

HIV-associated nephropathy

renal pathology in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, similar to focal glomerular sclerosis, with proteinuria, enlarged kidneys, and dilated tubules containing proteinaceous casts. It may progress to end-stage renal disease within weeks. Formerly called AIDS nephropathy.

HIV–associated nephropathy

Abbreviation: HIVAN
Renal failure with nephrotic-range (massive) protein loss in the urine caused by infection of the kidneys with HIV. Biopsy of kidneys of affected patients reveals focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
See also: nephropathy
References in periodicals archive ?
Describe the HIV infection to include the pathogenesis, HAART treatment, and HIV-associated nephropathy.
Use of HAART precipated a decline in HIV-associated nephropathy at participating sites, making recruitment difficult.
This lesion was first known as HIV-associated nephropathy or HIV-FSGS.
Early treatment of asymptomatic individuals is favorable when there is a rapid decline in CD4 cell count (such as more than 100/mcL per year); plasma HIV-1 RNA level is greater than 100,000 copies/mL; and in the presence of active hepatitis B or C, HIV-associated nephropathy, or cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Initially it was thought to be a consequence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a late stage complication of HIV infection with rapidly increasing incidence that is the most common cause of chronic kidney dysfunction and ultimately kidney failure in HIV-positive patients.
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is most common and, unless treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), progresses rapidly to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
There is concern that in sub-Saharan Africa the risks of tenofovir nephrotoxicity may be greater because of the high background prevalence of renal disease, including HIV-associated nephropathy, and lack of capacity to monitor renal function regularly.
The third leading cause of end-state renal disease, or ESRD, in African-Americans between ages 20 and 64 is HIV-associated nephropathy, or HIVAN.