Purification of Gymnodinium breve
toxin - dry column chromatographic technique.
Monitoring brevetoxins during a Gymnodinium breve
red tide: comparison of sodium channel specific cytotoxicity assay and mouse bioassay for determination of neurotoxic shellfish toxins in shell-fish extracts.
Red tides are caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve
and Ptychodiscus brevis), which produces a series of polycyclic ethers called brevetoxins (PbTx) (Davis 1948; Lin et al.
Other toxins that have been proven to be deactivated by ozone treatment are Clostridium botulinum (botulism) and Gymnodinium breve
that is one of the red tide toxins (9).
Responses of Gymnodinium breve
Davis to natural waters of diverse origin.
We traced the spatial and temporal extent of a Gymnodinium breve
bloom off of the Florida panhandle from August through October 1999 using a time series of inherent optical properties (spectral absorption and back-scattering) and chlorophyll concentration derived from SeaWiFS imagery.
Blooms of another toxic species, Gymnodinium breve
, have been implicated in the deaths of humpback whales in 1987 and Florida manatees in 1982 and 1996.
Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve
and Ptychodiscus brevis) and related species are dinoflagellates that can form HABs known as "Florida red tides.
Metabolism and Toxinology of Florida's Red Tide Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve
A pilot study to explore the occupational exposure to Gymnodinium breve
toxin and pulmonary function.
The causative organism for these events, Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve
and Ptychodiscus brevis), produces a family of neurotoxins, collectively called brevetoxins (Davis 1948; Lin et al.
Detection of harmful algal blooms using phetopigment and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red-tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve