Haemolytic glycoglycerolipids from Gymnodinium
Pyrrhoxanthin (122) was isolated for the first time from the marine dinoflagellate Gyrodinium resplendens (Loeblich and Smith 1968), from the photosynthetic dinoflagellates Amphidinium carterae (2 strains), Glenodinium, Gymnodinium
nelsoni, and Gyrodinium dorsum (Johansen et al.
Several dinoflagellate species can produce toxins, but the most common one that forms deadly blooms in Florida is Gymnodinium
9]M] stimulated Gymnodinium
catenatum growth and biomass .
A pilot study to explore the occupational exposure to Gymnodinium
brevetoxin and pulmonary function.
These phytoplankton species, like cochlodinium polykriokoides, gymnodinium
catenatum and pseudo-nitzschia, are sub-tropical and warm temperate species that are normally found in areas such as the Gulf of Mexico and Korea.
Balech (1974) used differences in the number and shape of cingular plates to separate Protoperidinium from Peridinium, and other taxa first described as species of Peridinium have been moved to other genera including Gymnodinium
, Gonyaulax, Ceratium, irhompsodinium and Glochidinium based on differences from the plate pattern of P.
Monitoring brevetoxins during a Gymnodinium
breve red tide: comparison of sodium channel specific cytotoxicity assay and mouse bioassay for determination of neurotoxic shellfish toxins in shell-fish extracts.
Other toxins that have been proven to be deactivated by ozone treatment are Clostridium botulinum (botulism) and Gymnodinium
breve that is one of the red tide toxins (9).
A monoclonal antibody which recognizes the cell surface of red tide alga Gymnodinium
STEROLS AS BIOMARKERS IN GYMNODINIUM
BREVE: DISTRIBUTION IN DINOFLAGELLATES.
Brevetoxin, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium
breve, killed approximately 150 Florida manatee, another endangered species, in 1996 (Bossart et al 1998), and was likely the cause for a smaller die-off in 1982 (O'Shea et al.