graft-versus-host disease

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graft-versus-host disease (reaction)

 (GVH disease)
a condition that occurs when immunologically competent cells or their precursors are transplanted into an immunocompromised recipient (host) that is not histocompatible with the donor. Because the host is immunocompromised, the graft is not rejected. Immunocompetent T lymphocytes derived from the donor tissue recognize the recipient's tissue as foreign or nonself and react with it, producing clinical manifestations including edema, erythema, ulceration, loss of hair, and heart and joint lesions similar to those of connective tissue disorders. This condition is a frequent complication of bone marrow transplantation. tissue typing and hla antigen matching of the donor and recipient reduce the possibility of graft-versus-host disease.

graft-versus-host disease

(grăft′vûr′səs-hōst′, -səz-)
n.
A condition in which cells from the transplanted tissue of a donor initiate an immunologic attack on the cells and tissue of the recipient.

graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)

a rejection response of certain grafts, especially of bone marrow. It is commonly associated with inadequate immunosuppressive therapy of the donor, which allows immunocompetent cells in the donated tissue to recognize the recipient's tissues as foreign and to attack them. Because the recipient is totally immunosuppressed, the recipient's immune system cannot defend against the attack. Characteristic signs may include skin lesions with edema, erythema, ulceration, scaling, loss of hair, lesions of the joints and the heart, and hemolytic anemia with a positive Coombs' test reaction. Also called graft-versus-host reaction, homologous disease.
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Acute graft-versus-host disease

graft-versus-host disease

Clinical immunology A reaction of donated BM against a Pt's own tissue, which is a major cause of M&M in allograft BMTs; GVHD is less significant in transplanted kidneys, heart, liver, and skin; viable donor T cells react immunologically against host Clinical Fever, morbiliform rash–central erythematous maculopapular eruption that may spread to the extremities with bulla formation, anorexia, N&V, severe watery or bloody diarrhea, lymphadenopathy, infections, hepatosplenomegaly, ↑ LFTs, jaundice, hemolytic anemia Prevention Irradiation of donated blood may prevent active leukocytes from rejecting recipient tissues Prophylaxis Cyclosporin, MTX, tacrolimus Treatment12 of Pts who develop post-BMT GVHD respond to high-dose steroids. See Bone marrow transplantation, Rapamycin, Tacrolimus, Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease.

graft-ver·sus-host dis·ease

(GVHD) (graft vĕr'sŭs hōst di-zēz')
An incompatibility reaction (which may be fatal) in a subject (host) of low immunologic competence (deficient lymphoid tissue) who has been the recipient of immunologically competent lymphoid tissue from a donor who lacks at least one antigen possessed by the recipient host; the reaction, or disease, is the result of action of the transplanted cells against those host tissues that possess the antigen not possessed by the donor.

graft-versus-host disease

A complication usually appearing two to three weeks after a bone marrow transplantation and caused by cytotoxic T cells in the donated marrow graft. These attack the host tissues causing liver inflammation (hepatitis) with obstruction to bile flow, diarrhoea and a severe scaling skin disease called exfoliative dermatitis. Drugs such as CYCLOSPORIN (ciclosporin) and high dose steroids must be used as the condition, once fully established, has a mortality of about 30%.
graft-versus-host disease graft tissue rejection, triggered by host tissue reaction to graft antigen

graft-ver·sus-host dis·ease

(GVHD) (graft vĕr'sŭs hōst di-zēz')
An incompatibility reaction (which may be fatal) in a subject (host) of low immunologic competence (deficient lymphoid tissue) who has been the recipient of immunologically competent lymphoid tissue from a donor who lacks at least one antigen possessed by the recipient host; the reaction, or disease, is the result of action of the transplanted cells against those host tissues that possess the antigen not possessed by the donor.

graft-versus-host disease

a condition that occurs when immunologically competent cells or their precursors are transplanted into an immunologically incompetent recipient (host) that is not histocompatible with the donor. Because the host is immunodeficient, the graft is not rejected. Immunocompetent T lymphocytes present in the donor tissue are activated and recognize the recipient's tissue as 'foreign' and react to them, producing clinical manifestations including edema, erythema, ulceration, loss of hair, and heart and joint lesions similar to those occurring in connective tissue disorders. Called also GVH disease or reaction, runting syndrome.