With respect to reproductive pattern, the species is best described as a gonochoric
, multiple batch spawner (asynchronous oocyte development) with indeterminate annual fecundity.
populations, such as those in Anaheim Bay and Newport Bay appear to form dense groups in spatially restricted spawning areas, thereby allowing subordinate males to engage in spawning activities (Hovey and Allen 2000).
The majority of gonochoric molluscs with known gender-determining systems, including some bivalves (Allen et al.
In gonochoric molluscs, an individual's gender is determined environmentally, genetically, or both (Yusa 2007).
ABSTRACT Through histological analyses, this investigation reveals an unusual high incidence of hermaphroditism in Megapitaria squalida, a gonochoric species.
Among these, accidental or casual hermaphroditism is the modality found in bivalves deemed gonochoric (Coe 1943, Mackie 1984, Beninger & Le Pennec 2006), in which it occurs in low frequency (Morton 1991).
It is regarded as a gonochoric species (Villalejo-Fuerte et al.
Microscopic inspection of the histologic sections of all specimens showed the species to be gonochoric
with 85 of the specimens being males and 74 females (Table 1).
For example, Placopecten magellanicus is considered to be a gonochoric
species (Parsons et al.
With few exceptions, prosobranch gastropods are gonochoric, typically with internal fertilization, although some species demonstrate protandric hermaphroditism (Gallardo 1989).
melongena appears to be gonochoric, the observation of intersex individuals generates doubts.
Dominance by females is however frequent in populations of gonochoric molluscs, and becomes accentuated with increasing age, eventually generated by differential mortality (Fretter & Graham 1962, Gibbs et al.