Golgi apparatus

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Related to Golgi bodies: endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria


 [ap″ah-rat´tus] (pl. appara´tus, apparatuses)
an arrangement of a number of parts acting together to perform a special function.
Golgi apparatus see golgi apparatus.
juxtaglomerular apparatus a collective term for the juxtaglomerular cells in a nephron.
lacrimal apparatus see lacrimal apparatus.
Wangensteen's apparatus a nasal suction apparatus connected with a duodenal tube for aspirating gas and fluid from stomach and intestine.


1. the sum, combination, or collection of various things or related factors, like or unlike; e.g., a complex of symptoms (see syndrome).
2. a group of interrelated ideas, mainly unconscious, that have a common emotional tone and strongly influence a person's attitudes and behavior.
3. that portion of an electrocardiographic tracing which represents the systole of an atrium or ventricle.
AIDS-related complex (ARC) a complex of signs and symptoms occurring in HIV infection including fever, weight loss, prolonged diarrhea, minor opportunistic infections, lymphadenopathy, and changes in cells of the immune system.
antigen-antibody complex here the complex formed by the noncovalent binding of an antibody and antigen. Complexes of antibodies belonging to certain immunoglobulin classes may activate complement. Called also immune complex.
anti-inhibitor coagulant complex (AICC) a concentrated fraction from pooled human plasma, which includes various coagulation factors. It is administered intravenously as an antihemorrhagic in hemophilic patients with inhibitors to coagulation factor VIII.
atrial complex the P wave of the electrocardiogram, representing electrical activity of the atria. See also ventricular complex.
castration complex in psychoanalytic theory, unconscious thoughts and motives stemming from fear of loss of the genitals as punishment for forbidden sexual desires.
Electra complex libidinous fixation of a daughter toward her father. This term is rarely used, since oedipus complex is generally applied to both sexes.
factor IX complex a sterile, freeze-dried powder consisting of partially purified coagulation factor IX fraction, as well as concentrated factor II, VII, and X fractions, of venous plasma from healthy human donors. It is used in the prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding in patients with hemophilia B, replacement of factor VII in patients deficient in that factor, and treatment of anticoagulant-induced hemorrhage. Administered intravenously.
Ghon complex primary complex (def. 1).
Golgi complex golgi apparatus.
HLA complex the human major histocompatibility complex, which contains the hla antigens.
immune complex antigen-antibody complex.
inclusion complex one in which molecules of one type are enclosed within cavities in the crystalline lattice of another substance.
inferiority complex unconscious feelings of inadequacy, producing shyness or timidity or, as a compensation, exaggerated agressiveness and expression of superiority; based on Alfred Adler's concept that everyone is born with a feeling of inferiority stemming from real or imagined physical or psychological deficiency, with the manner in which the inferiority is handled determining behavior.
interpolated premature ventricular complex a premature ventricular complex that does not interfere with the conduction of the next sinus beat, i.e., it lacks the usual following compensatory pause.
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) the chromosomal region containing genes that control the histocompatibility antigens; in humans it controls the hla antigens.
membrane attack complex (MAC) C5b,6,7,8,9, the five-molecule complex that is the cytolytic agent of the complement system.
Oedipus complex see oedipus complex.
primary complex
1. the combination of a parenchymal pulmonary lesion (Ghon focus) and a corresponding lymph node focus, occurring in primary tuberculosis, usually in children. Similar lesions may also be associated with other mycobacterial infections and with fungal infections.
2. the primary cutaneous lesion at the site of infection in the skin, e.g., chancre in syphilis and tuberculous chancre.
QRS complex a group of waves seen on an electrocardiogram, representing ventricular depolarization. Called also QRS wave. It actually consists of three distinct waves created by the passage of the cardiac electrical impulse through the ventricles and occurs at the beginning of each ventricular contraction. In a normal surface electrocardiogram the R wave is the upward deflection; the first downward deflection represents a Q wave and the final downward deflection is the S wave. The Q and S waves may be extremely weak and sometimes are absent.

One abnormality of the QRS complex is increased voltage resulting from enlargement of heart muscle, which produces increased quantities of electric current. A low-voltage QRS complex may result from toxic conditions of the heart, most commonly from fluid in the pericardium. Pleural effusion and emphysema also can cause a decrease in the voltage of the QRS complex.
VATER complex an association of congenital anomalies consisting of vertebral defects, imperforate anus, tracheoesophageal fistula, and radial and renal dysplasia.
ventricular complex the Q, R, S, and T waves of the electrocardiogram, representing ventricular electrical activity. See also atrial complex.

Gol·gi ap·pa·ra·tus

a membranous system of cisternae and vesicles located between the nucleus and the secretory pole or surface of a cell; concerned with the investment and intracellular transport of membrane-bounded secretory proteins, and the synthesis of polysaccharides and glycoproteins.

Golgi apparatus

A network of stacked membranous vesicles, present in most living cells, that stores and modifies proteins and other macromolecules and transports them within the cell or excretes them from the cell. Also called Golgi body, Golgi complex.

Golgi apparatus

Etymology: Camillo Golgi, Italian histologist and Nobel laureate, 1843-1926; L, ad, toward, praeparare, to prepare
one of many small membranous structures found in most cells, composed of various elements associated with the formation of carbohydrate side chains of glycoproteins, mucopolysaccharides, and other substances. Saccules within each structure migrate through the plasma membrane and release substances associated with external and internal secretion. Also called Golgi body, Golgi complex.
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Golgi apparatus

Gol·gi ap·pa·ra·tus

(gol'jē ap'ă-rat'ŭs)
A membranous system of cisterns and vesicles located between the nucleus and the secretory pole or surface of a cell; concerned with the investment and intracellular transport of membrane-bounded secretory proteins.

Golgi apparatus

A collection of stacked, flattened, cup-shaped sacs situated in the CYTOPLASM of cells near the nucleus and concerned with the movement of materials within the cell. The Golgi apparatus receives protein-containing vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum, glycosylates them, sorts them into groups for different locations and transports them to other parts of the cell or to the cell membrane for export. (Camillo Golgi, 1843–1926, Italian microscopic anatomist).
Golgi apparatusclick for a larger image
Fig. 178 Golgi apparatus . The secretory vesicles carry products from the apparatus to the edge of the cell where they may be released.

Golgi apparatus



a series of cell ORGANELLES consisting of a stack of membrane-lined vesicles called CISTERNAE, first described by Camillo Golgi in 1898 but only clearly defined from studies with the ELECTRON MICROSCOPE. See Fig. 178 . The membranes of the Golgi apparatus are produced from vesicles pinched off from the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and secretory vesicles are formed by the apparatus which move to the periphery of the cell and may carry out EXOCYTOSIS. The apparatus is thought to have a storage role as well as enabling the assembly of simple molecules into more complex ones, for example, the packaging of carbohydrates and proteins into glycoprotein.


Camillo, Italian histologist and Nobel laureate, 1844-1926.
Golgi apparatus - a membranous system of cisternae and vesicles concerned with intracellular transport of membrane-bounded secretory proteins. Synonym(s): dictyosome; Golgi body; Golgi complex; Golgi internal reticulum; Holmgrén-Golgi canals
Golgi body - Synonym(s): Golgi apparatus
Golgi cells
Golgi complex - Synonym(s): Golgi apparatus
Golgi corpuscle
Golgi internal reticulum - Synonym(s): Golgi apparatus
Golgi osmiobichromate fixative - an osmic-bichromate mixture used to demonstrate nerve cells and their processes.
Golgi stain - any of several methods for staining nerve cells, nerve fibers, and neuroglia.
Golgi tendon organ - a proprioceptive sensory nerve ending embedded among the fibers of a tendon. Synonym(s): neurotendinous organ; neurotendinous spindle
Golgi zone - part of the cytoplasm occupied by the Golgi apparatus.
Golgi-Mazzoni corpuscle - an encapsulated sensory nerve ending.
Holmgrén-Golgi canals - Synonym(s): Golgi apparatus

Golgi apparatus

intracellular transport system formed of channels and vesicles facilitating modification, storage and packaging of intracellular products, secretory proteins and lysozomal enzymes prior to their release from the cell (see Table 1)
Table 1: Cell organelles
Cell membraneBimolecular lipid and protein membrane that surrounds the cell
• Bi-layer of non-polar lipid molecules (phosphatidylcholine, phospharidylethanolamine, cholesterol) that acts as a barrier to water and hydrophilic solutes
• Proteins:
  • Structural proteins

  • Protein pumps that actively transport ions such as sodium out of the cell

  • Carrier proteins that carry molecules such as glucose into the cell

  • Ion channel proteins, such as sodium ion channels in nerve fibres to which molecules of local anaesthetic attach to prevent the passage of the pain-inducing nerve impulse

  • Receptor proteins, such as insulin receptors which facilitate the passage of glucose into the cell

  • Immunoglobulin proteins, which form part of the immune response mechanism

  • Enzyme proteins, such as alkaline phosphatase

Cell cytoplasmThe gel-like matter contained within the membrane envelop:
• Contains and supports specialized organelles, including the cell nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and lysozomes
• Stores substances (glycogen and lipids)
• Synthesizes and metabolizes essential substances (amino acids, fatty acids, monosaccharides)
• Synthesizes and translates protein
• Contains microtubules which help maintain the form of the cell and form intercommunication channels between organelles
Cell cytoskeletonA complex network of structural elements (microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments) which determine the shape of the cell, its ability to move and its response to external stimuli
Cell nucleusPresent in all eukaryotic cells capable of mitosis
Contains the cell genome (DNA) and the means of replication and transcription of RNA
Separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelop (which disappears during mitosis and meiosis)
Contains the nucleolus, where ribosomes are synthesized
Intercellular connectionsThere are two types of intercellular connections: tight junctions and gap junctions
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)Structures (receptor integrins, immunoglobulin adhesion molecules, Ca+-dependent cadherins and carbohydrate-binding selectins) within the cell membrane that bond to laminins within the extracellular matrix to attach adjacent cells to one another and to the basal membrane

Gol·gi ap·pa·ra·tus

, Golgi body , Golgi complex (gol'jē ap'ă-rat'ŭs, bodē, kompleks)
A membranous system of cisterns and vesicles located between the nucleus and the secretory pole or surface of a cell.

Golgi apparatus (gōl´jē),

n.pr the small membranous structures found in most cells, composed of various elements associated with the formation of carbohydrate side chains of glycoproteins, mucopolysaccharides, and other substances. Also called
Golgi body or
Golgi complex.
References in periodicals archive ?
Acrosome formation begins in spermatocytes with the formation of small proacrosomal vesicles, and the presence of well-developed Golgi bodies suggests that these play a role in their formation.
1985a), observed vesicles budding from Golgi bodies in the F-cells of fed green tiger prawn Penaeus semisulcatus and suggested that these vesicles were enzyme precursors or zymogens, but this is yet to be confirmed or observed in other penaeids (Dall 1992, Icely & Nott 1992).
The perinuclear cytoplasm contains 1-3 Golgi bodies, residual bodies, granules of medium electron density, rare mitochondria, and cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER).
Both columnar cells and gland cells have a fine granular cytoplasm replete with Golgi bodies and electron-dense and electron-lucent vesicles of varying sizes (Fig.

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