enema

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enema

 [en´ĕ-mah] (Gr.)
1. introduction of fluid into the rectum.
2. a solution introduced into the rectum to promote evacuation of feces or as a means of administering nutrient substances, medicinal substances, or opaque material for radiologic examination of the lower intestinal tract; see also barium test. Unless otherwise prescribed, the solution is warmed to 40.5°C (105°F), the patient is placed in Sims' position or knee-chest position, and the rectal tube is inserted. The container of fluid is usually held about 45 cm (18 in) above the buttocks for a cleansing enema. Various types of enema are shown in the accompanying table.
Fleet enema trademark for an enema containing, in each 100 ml, 16 g sodium biphosphate and 6 g sodium phosphate, packaged in a plastic squeeze bottle fitted with a 5-cm prelubricated rectal tube.
hydrocortisone enema an aqueous solution of hydrocortisone administered rectally as an antiinflammatory in treatment of ulcerative colitis.

en·e·ma

(en'ĕ-mă),
A rectal injection for clearing out the bowel, or for administering drugs or food.
[G.]

enema

/en·e·ma/ (en´ĕ-mah) [Gr.] a solution introduced into the rectum to promote evacuation of feces or as a means of introducing nutrients, medicinal substances, or opaque material for radiologic examination of the lower intestinal tract.
barium enema  contrast e.
contrast enema  a suspension of barium injected into the intestine as a contrast agent for radiologic examination.
double-contrast enema  double-contrast examination (q.v.) of the intestine.

enema

(ĕn′ə-mə)
n.
1. The injection of liquid into the rectum through the anus for cleansing, for stimulating evacuation of the bowels, or for other therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.
2. The fluid so injected.

enema

[en′əmə]
Etymology: Gk, enienai, to send in
the introduction of a solution into the rectum for cleansing or therapeutic purposes. Enemas may be commercially packed disposable units or reusable equipment prepared just before use.
method The equipment is assembled. If disposable equipment is to be used, an 18- to 20-French catheter, a 2- to 3-foot length of tubing, an enema bag, the solution, and a clamp are collected and taken to the bedside. If a disposable set is to be used, no other equipment is necessary. The patient is positioned in the left lateral or dorsal position. After air is expelled from the tubing, the tip of the catheter is lubricated. (Disposable units usually have prelubricated tips.) The patient is asked to bear down, as if to defecate, and the tip of the catheter is gently inserted 3 to 4 inches into the rectum, depending on the size of the patient and the purpose of the enema. The solution is allowed to flow from a height of 18 to 20 inches above the level of the hips. The tip of the catheter or squeeze bottle is withdrawn when most of the solution has been administered. Some solution is left in the tubing to prevent air from entering the rectum. Light pressure is applied over the anus with toilet tissue or a gauze pad. The fluid is held in by the patient for the prescribed length of time. It is then expelled as the patient sits on the toilet.
interventions The reasons for performing the procedure and the steps to be taken are explained to the patient. The solution is warmed to 99° F to 105° F (37.8° C to 40.6° C) to reduce the stimulation of intestinal peristalsis by a sudden temperature change in the colon. The patient is warned that some discomfort may occur because the colon tends to contract when distended by the fluid. The enema is given slowly to prevent sudden distension that would cause peristalsis or spasm and greater discomfort. A call bell is kept within reach of the patient during expulsion of the enema because the discomfort of the procedure and the effort required to expel the enema may cause faintness. The color, consistency, and amount of material evacuated are evaluated. If nondisposable equipment is used, it is rinsed in cold water before being washed with warm, soapy water and sterilized.
outcome criteria A thorough explanation to the patient of all aspects of the procedure, careful observation of the patient during the procedure, slow and gentle administration of the enema, and evaluation of the results of the procedure are important to achieve the desired effect.
enlarge picture
Positioning for enema administration

enema

A fluid infused per rectum, generally to cleanse the colon. See Barium enema, Colonic irrigation, Herbal enema.

en·e·ma

(en'ĕ-mă)
A rectal injection to clear out the bowel or to administer drugs or food.

enema

The introduction of various fluids, solutions or suspensions into the rectum to treat CONSTIPATION, to assist in X-ray or endoscopic examination, or to administer drugs or nutrients.

Enema

Insertion of a tube into the rectum to infuse fluid into the bowel and encourage a bowel movement. Ordinary enemas contain tap water, mixtures of soap and water, glycerine and water, or other materials.
Mentioned in: Colostomy, Hemorrhoids

en·e·ma

(en'ĕ-mă)
A rectal injection for clearing the bowel or administering drugs or food.

enema,

n a procedure in which a solution is introduced into the rectum for cleansing or therapeutic purposes.

enema

1. introduction of fluid into the rectum.
2. a solution introduced into the rectum to promote evacuation of feces or as a means of administering nutrient or medicinal substances, or opaque material in radiological examination of the lower intestinal tract. See also barium study.

through-and-through enema
an extensive enema in which a large volume of fluid is slowly introduced into the rectum, massaged through the intestines, and finally emerges from the duodenum to cause vomiting of intestinal contents. Sometimes advocated for complete clearing of the intestinal tract in cases of ingested poisons.