Among these inborn errors are glutaric aciduria type I (18,19) (glutarate concentrations may be within reference values, whereas 3-hydroxyglutarate is present); medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (adipate, suberate, and sebacate concentrations may be within reference values, but the presence of suberylglycine and hexanoylglycine will reveal the disorder) (20); multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, particularly in its mild forms (metabolites suggesting such a disease, including ethylmalonate and glutarate, are quite variable); and 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency (2-ketoglutarate excretion ranges from within reference values to 10 times higher than the upper limit of the reference interval).
apnea, septicemia, seizures, respiratory or cardiac insufficiency); diabetic ketoacidosis; Reye & Reye-like syndromes; increase with younger age; saccharose, fructose, lactose; drugs inducing hyperlactemia; dialysis bath; MCT administration Lysine, glycine, serine metabolism Glutaconate Glycerate Uremia; increase with younger age Glycolate (83, 84) Ethylene glycol poisoning Glyoxylate 2-Hydroxyadipate (85) 3-Hydroxyglutarate (85) 2-Ketoadipate (85) Glutarate (18, 19, 85-87) 2-Ketoglutarate degradation; bacterial gut metabolism; uremia; ethylene glycol poisoning; lithium Oxalate (83, 88-90) Enteric malabsorption (regional enteritis or ileitis, celiac sprue disease, resection of ileum, Crohn disease); idiopathic stone disease; pyridoxine deficiency; increase with younger age; diet (e.
Zinc glutarate without any substituent, which is a catalyst in the first category, produced PPC with the highest yield and the hi ghest molecular weight.
Among the catalysts reported so far, zinc glutarate has been known to be the most effective catalyst to produce aliphatic polycarbonates with a reasonably high molecular weight [8, 9, 18, 20-25].
In this study, various zinc glutarate derivatives were newly prepared by the reaction of zinc oxide with ten different glutaric acid derivatives.
3,3-tetramethyleneglutaric acid (3,3-TMGA), and mono-methyl glutarate (mono-MGA) (see Fig.
Zinc glutarate (ZnO/GA) was prepared as described elsewhere [8, 21].
In the similar manner, the other zinc glutarate derivatives, as well as zinc diglycolate were synthesized.
Both the cleaned reactor body and zinc glutarate catalyst were dried at 100[degrees]C for 3 days in a vacuum oven of 1 X [10.
As illustrated in Table 1, some of the zinc glutarate derivatives are synthesized in reasonably high yields (94%-98%): zinc glutarate (ZnO/GA).