excitatory amino acid transporter

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excitatory amino acid transporter

Any of the sodium- and potassium-dependent members of the solute carrier family (SLC) 6, which are widely distributed in the brain. EAATs regulate excitatory neurotransmission, maintain low extracellular glutamate concentrations (reducing neurotoxicity) and provide glutamate for glutamate-glutamine cycle metabolism. Each of the five subtypes has a main primary distribution:
• EAAT1—Cerebellar glia;
• EAAT2—Forebrain glia;
• EAAT3—Cortical neurons;
• EAAT4—Cerebellar Purkinje neurons;
• EAAT5—Retina.

Molecular pathology
EAAT overactivity has been implicated in schizophrenia and other mental illnesses; underactivity occurs in ischaemia and traumatic brain injury.
References in periodicals archive ?
This has been experimentally confirmed by high-resolution structures of membrane transporters in different conformations and is exemplified by the conformational change in the archaeal glutamate transporter homologue GltPh from Pyrococcus horikoshii.
The effect of astaxanthin on the evoked glutamate release was prevented by chelating the intrasynaptosomal Ca(2+) ions and by the vesicular transporter inhibitor, but was insensitive to the glutamate transporter inhibitor.
Its interaction with a certain variety of the glutamate transporter (VGLUT) plays the key role.
088 (neuronal/epithelial high affinity glutamate transporter, system Xag), member 1 solute carrier family 1 SLC1A2 0.
There seems to be less of this major glutamate transporter in the higher-grade, more-invasive tumors," he says.
However, other investigators have found that abnormalities in glutamate transporter protein activity are not unique to ALS (Choi, 1992; Ince, Eggett, & Shaw, 1997; Tyler & Shefner, 1991).
Moreover, the drug-induced neuroplasticity in glutamate transmission has become a source of potential pharmacotherapeutic targets for treating addiction, including the cystine-glutamate exchanger, glutamate transporter and metabotropic glutamate receptors.
In studies of mice that lack the ability to send the above signals because their glutamate transporter, so-called VGLUT, has been inactivated, the scientists studied how prone the mice were to ingest sugar and cocaine.
Enhancement of the activity of doxorubicin by inhibition of glutamate transporter.
Rothstein of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and his colleagues described a study of one glutamate transporter, EAAT2.
Focal Loss of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 in a transgenic rat model of SOD1 mutant-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (1604-1609, PNAS - Feb.
Suspecting that this glutamate-removal system might play a role in maintaining input specificity, Bolshakov, director of McLean Hospital's Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory, and his colleagues blocked the glutamate transporter in neurons of the amygdala.
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