Metabolism and disposition of resveratrol in rats: extent of absorption, glucuronidation
, and enterohepatic recirculation evidenced by a linked-rat model.
As the steroid reenters the circulation and passes through the liver, most of it is metabolized via phase I and II enzymes and converted to more water-soluble and inert forms, mostly through sulfation, glucuronidation
, and methylation pathways.
21) These enzymes convert estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) into catechol metabolites allowing for phase 2 detoxification in the liver via methylation and glucuronidation
UGT is an enzyme responsible for the process of glucuronidation
, which changes unwanted compounds into a more water-soluble version to allow for easier elimination from the body.
There are about 20 UGTs, some of which are involved in glucuronidation
of androgens (Alcorn and McNamara 2002), such as UGT2B17, whose expression increases significantly during the first weeks of life, whereas it is inactive in fetal liver cells or present in a low-affinity form (Coughtrie et al.
Although sample collection is easy, downstream challenges arise because many drugs undergo glucuronidation
prior to excretion, meaning a hydrolysis step must be performed prior to HPLC or GC analysis.
Though silymarin does not have antiviral properties against hepatitis virus, it promotes protein synthesis, helps in regenerating liver tissue, controls inflammation, enhances glucuronidation
and protects against glutathione depletion.
dealkylation or glucuronidation
, which would markedly change the mass defect (Table 1).
is decreased due to a partial defect in the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase enzyme.
The majority of a hydromorphone dose undergoes glucuronidation
and is eliminated through the urinary route as hydromorphone glucuronide.
LIVAZO is predominantly metabolized via glucuronidation
and is only minimally metabolised by CYP system, which may help reduce its potential for CYP-mediated drug-drug interactions.
Another key finding in this study was that urine NNAL-Gluc ratios, a probable marker of NNAL glucuronidation
and detoxification, were found to be significantly higher in White-American smokers than their African-American counterparts.