Glucotrol


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Related to Glucotrol: Glucophage, glyburide, glipizide, metformin, Januvia

glipizide

Glibenese (UK), Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL, Minodiab (UK)

Pharmacologic class: Sulfonylurea

Therapeutic class: Hypoglycemic

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Lowers blood glucose level by stimulating insulin release from pancreas, increasing insulin sensitivity at receptor sites, and decreasing hepatic glucose production. Also increases peripheral tissue sensitivity to insulin and causes mild diuresis.

Availability

Tablets: 5 mg, 10 mg

Tablets (extended-release): 5 mg, 10 mg

Indications and dosages

To control blood glucose in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in patients who have some pancreatic function and don't respond to diet therapy

Adults: 5 mg/day P.O. initially, increased as needed after several days (range is 2.5 to 40 mg/day). Give extended-release tablet once daily; maximum dosage is 20 mg/day. Give daily dosage above 15 mg in two divided doses.

Conversion from insulin therapy

Adults: With insulin dosage above 20 units/day, start with usual glipizide dosage and reduce insulin dosage by 50%. With insulin dosage of 20 units/day or less, insulin may be discontinued when glipizide therapy starts.

Dosage adjustment

• Hepatic or renal impairment
• Elderly patients

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug
• Severe renal, hepatic, thyroid, or other endocrine disease
• Uncontrolled infection, serious burns, or trauma
• Diabetic ketoacidosis
• Pregnancy or breastfeeding

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• mild to moderate hepatic, renal, or cardiovascular disease; impaired thyroid, pituitary, or adrenal function
• elderly patients.

Administration

• Check baseline creatinine level for normal renal function before giving first dose.
• Give daily dose (extended-release) at breakfast.
• Administer immediate-release tablets 30 minutes before a meal (preferably breakfast). If patient takes two daily doses, give second dose before dinner.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, weakness

CV: increased CV mortality risk

EENT: blurred vision

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, cramps, heartburn, epigastric distress, anorexia

Hematologic: aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia

Hepatic: cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis

Metabolic: hyponatremia, hypoglycemia

Skin: rash, pruritus, erythema, urticaria, eczema, angioedema, photosensitivity

Other: increased appetite

Interactions

Drug-drug.Androgens (such as testosterone), chloramphenicol, clofibrate, guanethidine, MAO inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (except diclofenac), salicylates, sulfonamides, tricyclic antidepressants: increased risk of hypoglycemia

Beta-adrenergic blockers: altered response to glipizide, requiring dosage change; prolonged hypoglycemia (with nonselective beta blockers)

Calcium channel blockers, corticosteroids, estrogens, hydantoins, hormonal contraceptives, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, phenothiazines, phenytoin, rifampin, sympathomimetics, thiazide diuretics, thyroid preparations: decreased hypoglycemic effect

Warfarin: initially increased, then decreased, effects of both drugs

Drug-diagnostic tests.Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol: increased values

Glucose, granulocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells: decreased values

Drug-herbs.Aloe (oral), bitter melon, burdock, chromium, coenzyme Q10, dandelion, eucalyptus, fenugreek: additive hypoglycemic effects

Glucosamine: impaired glycemic control

Drug-behaviors.Alcohol use: disulfiram-like reaction

Patient monitoring

• Monitor blood glucose level, especially during periods of increased stress.
• Evaluate CBC and renal function tests.
• If patient is ill or has abnormal laboratory values, monitor electrolyte, ketone, glucose, pH, lactate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate levels.
• Monitor cardiovascular status.

Patient teaching

• Advise patient to take daily dose of extended-release tablets with breakfast or immediate-release tablet 30 minutes before breakfast (and second dose, if prescribed, before dinner).
• Advise patient to monitor blood glucose level as instructed by prescriber.
• Tell patient he may need supplemental insulin during times of stress or when he can't maintain adequate oral intake.
• Teach patient how to recognize signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.
• Stress importance of diet and exercise to help control diabetes.
• Instruct patient to wear or carry medical identification describing his condition.
• Advise patient to keep sugar source at hand at all times in case of hypoglycemia.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.
• Tell patient he'll undergo regular blood testing during therapy.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

Glucotrol

(glo͞o′kə-trōl′)
A trademark for the drug glipizide.

Glucotrol

a trademark for an oral antidiabetic drug (glipiZIDE).

Glucotrol®

Glipizide, see there.
References in periodicals archive ?
Other Names for This Medicine Generic Name Brand Name acetohexamide Dymelor chlorpropamide Diabinese glimepiride Amaryl glipizide Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL glyburide DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase tolazamide Tolinase tolbutamide Orinase
Glucotrol XL (glipizide extended release tablets) is indicated as an adjunct to diet for the control of hyperglycemia in patients with type-2 diabetes.
Brand Name Drugs Equivalent Commonly GenericSelect Drug Brand Other Brands Used For Fluoxetine(a) Prozac Celexa, Lexapro(a), Depression Paxil CR(a), Zoloft(a) Lovastatin(a) Mevacor Crestor, Lescol, High Lipitor(a), Cholesterol Pravachol(a), Zocor Ranitidine Tablets(a) Zantac AcipHex(a), Acid Tablets Nexium, Reflux Prevacid(a), Protonix, Prilosec Lisinopril(a) Zestril, Avapro, Hypertension Prinivil Atacand, Benicar, Cozaar(a), Diovan(a), Atenolol(a) Tenormin Micardis, Norvasc(a), Teveten Metoprolol(a) Lopressor Chlorthalidone Hygroton Hydrochlorothiazide(a) Oretic Metformin(a) Glucophage Actos(a), Diabetes Avandia(a) Glyburide(a) Micronase, Diabeta Glipizide(a) Glucotrol Ibuprofen(a) Motrin Bextra, Celebrex, Arthritis Vioxx Pain Naproxen(a) Naprosyn (a) Formulary drug
We also entered into an alliance for our generic OTC Claritin products, and agreements that enabled us to market all strengths of generic Glucotrol XL(R) and enhance the value of our line of oral contraceptives.
These results include the November 20, 2003, launch of generic Glucotrol XL, licensed from Pfizer, Inc.
Andrx Corporation (Nasdaq:ADRX) ("Andrx" or the "Company") announced today that it will immediately begin shipping the 5 mg and 10 mg strengths of glipizide extended-release tablets, generic equivalents of Glucotrol XL(R).
The Company will be able to launch bioequivalent versions of Glucotrol XL (as further discussed below) in the fourth quarter of 2003.
and Alza Corporation to resolve patent infringement litigation involving the Company's pending Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for bioequivalent versions of Glucotrol XL(R) (extended release glipizide) 10 mg, 5 mg and 2.
This collaboration with Watson Pharmaceuticals demonstrates Amarin's capability of developing technically challenging products such as generic Glucotrol XL(R).
Indicated for the treatment of Type II diabetes, the 10mg strength of Glucotrol XL had $217 million of brand sales in 2002, according to IMS data.