The occurrence of preaspiration in the production of voiceless stops in Tuscan Italian (or in any variety of Italian) has not been reported in the literature, aside from preliminary results presented by Stevens herself (see M Stevens, J Hajek and M Absalom (2002) 'Raddoppiamento sintattico and glottalization
phenomena in Italian: a first phonetic excursus' in C.
While breathiness occurs only in the last portion of the vowel, glottalization
or creakiness can be found in the last, the middle, or the first portion of the vowel.
This development has a parallel in the dialectal Indo-European loss of glottalization
after long vowels (2).
It is well known that secondary articulation types, such as labialization and palatalization, as well as laryngeal modifications, such as aspiration and glottalization
, can play a contrastive role in segment inventories.
But since they say this is only a difference in glottalization
, tone has actually become neutralized in this dialect, and there is only an opposition between presence and absence of stod, which is a situation comparable to that in Danish.
Wetzels (1985) points out that, in derivational terms, stop epenthesis feeds the glottalization
of coda voiceless stops, although this may apply in British RP but not in American English (Gussenhoven and Jacobs 1998: 131-132).
It should be stressed that t in the sequence t-d of Amharic tammada 'harness' lost its glottalization
in Chaha damada through a process of assimilation, t-d becoming d-d.
Woolard (1989) argues that the overuse of glottalization
by the last speakers of Xinca in Guatemala is due to contact with Spanish: the use of this marked feature in Xinca is motivated by the fact that this form does NOT appear in Spanish and glottalization
is therefore a symbolic act of differentiation for Xinca speakers.
If this turns out to be correct, it would mean that pharyngealization-velarization could develop into glottalization
, which would significantly alter our thinking about the nature of the Proto-Semitic emphatics.
However, there is some evidence from various languages suggesting that the absolute incompatibility of nasalization and glottalization
is too strong.
theory even seems contradicted by Enos who admits to "the probable influence of Arabic upon Tiberian pronunciation" (p.
Most of the names were familiar to Holbrook, but one was not--a woman in her 70s whom Ennis described as a fluent speaker who still made the "old-time sounds," the glottalizations
and imploded consonants that most contemporary Maidu speakers have lost.