Laryngeal modifications like aspiration, glottalization, etc.
There are no examples of consonants with uvularization or glottalization in his survey (though cf.
h] laryngealization lar /t p/ ejectivity eje /t p/ glottalization n.
LAB = labialization PAL = palatalization VEL = velarization PHA = pharyngealization ASP = aspiration PRN = prenasalization NAS = nasalization PRA = preaspiration BRV = breathy voicing BRR = breathy release LAR = laryngealization EJE = ejectivity GLO = glottalization
He points out that if epenthesis involved only phonetic-implementation rules, it could not introduce the featural structure necessary to trigger the glottalization rule.
One of the major reasons in the literature for considering epenthesis to be part of the phonology of a language has been glottalization of epenthetic stops (Clements 1987).
Thus, the interaction with glottalization provides at least one reason why stop epenthesis should be considered phonological, at least in some dialects of English.
Pierrehumbert (1994) shows that instrumentally detectable glottalization (of underlying, not epenthetic stops), at least in the absence of a falling intonation contour, is not as widespread as it is generally thought to be.
Woolard (1989) argues that the overuse of glottalization
by the last speakers of Xinca in Guatemala is due to contact with Spanish: the use of this marked feature in Xinca is motivated by the fact that this form does NOT appear in Spanish and glottalization
is therefore a symbolic act of differentiation for Xinca speakers.
If this turns out to be correct, it would mean that pharyngealization-velarization could develop into glottalization
, which would significantly alter our thinking about the nature of the Proto-Semitic emphatics.
However, there is some evidence from various languages suggesting that the absolute incompatibility of nasalization and glottalization
is too strong.
theory even seems contradicted by Enos who admits to "the probable influence of Arabic upon Tiberian pronunciation" (p.