glomerulus

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glomerulus

 [glo-mer´u-lus] (pl. glomer´uli) (L.)
1. a small tuft or cluster, such as a small convoluted mass of capillaries.
2. a network of vascular tufts encased in the malpighian capsule of the kidney. adj., adj glomer´ular.

The glomerulus is an integral part of the nephron, the basic unit of the kidney. Each nephron is capable of forming urine by itself, and each kidney has approximately a million nephrons. The specific function of each glomerulus is to bring blood (and the waste products it carries) to the nephron. As the blood flows through the glomerulus, about one fifth of the plasma passes through the glomerular membrane, collects in the malpighian capsule, and then flows through the renal tubules. Much of this fluid passes back into the blood via the small capillaries around the tubules (peritubular capillaries). The continuous filtration of fluid from the glomeruli and its reabsorption into the peritubular capillaries are made possible by a high pressure in the glomerular capillary bed and a low pressure in the peritubular bed.

Any disease of the glomeruli, such as acute or chronic glomerulonephritis, must be considered serious because it interferes with the basic functions of the kidneys, that is, filtration of liquids and excretion of certain end products of metabolism and excess sodium, potassium, and chloride ions that may accumulate in the blood.

glo·mer·u·lus

, pl.

glo·mer·u·li

(glō-mer'yū-lŭs, -ū-lī),
1. A plexus of capillaries.
2. A tuft formed of capillary loops at the beginning of each nephric tubule in the kidney; this tuft, with its capsule constitutes the corpusculum renis (renal corpuscle). Synonym(s): malpighian glomerulus, malpighian tuft
3. The twisted secretory portion of a sweat gland.
4. A cluster of dendritic ramifications and axon terminals forming a complex synaptic relationship and surrounded by a glial sheath.
Synonym(s): glomerule
[Mod. L. dim. of L. glomus, a ball of yarn]

glomerulus

/glo·mer·u·lus/ (glo-mer´u-lus) pl. glomer´uli   [L.] a small tuft or cluster, as of blood vessels or nerve fibers; often used alone to designate one of the renal glomeruli.
olfactory glomerulus  one of the small globular masses of dense neuropil in the olfactory bulb, containing the first synapse in the olfactory pathway.
renal glomerulus  globular tufts of capillaries, one projecting into the expanded end or capsule of each of the uriniferous tubules, which together with the glomerular capsule constitute the renal corpuscle.

glomerulus

(glō-mĕr′yə-ləs)
n. pl. glomeru·li (-lī′)
1. A small cluster or mass of blood vessels or nerve fibers.
2. A tuft of capillaries situated within a Bowman's capsule at the end of a renal tubule in the vertebrate kidney that filters waste products from the blood and thus initiates urine formation.

glomerulus

[glōmer′yoo͡ləs] pl. glomeruli
Etymology: L, small ball
1 a tuft or cluster.
2 a structure composed of blood vessels or nerve fibers, such as a renal glomerulus. glomerular, adj.

glo·mer·u·lus

, pl. glomeruli (glō-meryū-lŭs, -lī)
1. A plexus of capillaries.
2. A tuft formed of capillary loops at the beginning of each nephric tubule in the kidney; this tuft with its capsule constitutes the renal corpusculum (malpighian body).
3. The twisted secretory portion of a sweat gland.
4. A cluster of dendritic ramifications and axon terminals forming a complex synaptic relationship and surrounded by a glial sheath.
Synonym(s): Bowman capsule, glomerule.
[Mod. L. dim. of L. glomus, a ball of yarn]

glomerulus

(glō-mĕr′ū-lŭs) plural.glomeruli [L.]
Enlarge picture
FILTRATION IN GLOMERULUS
1. One of the capillary networks that are part of the renal corpuscles in the nephrons of the kidney. Each is surrounded by a Bowman's capsule, the site of renal (glomerular) filtration, which is the first step in the formation of urine. See: illustration
2. A group of twisted capillaries or nerve fibers.

olfactory glomerulus

A neural network found in the olfactory bulb, formed by the dendrites of mitral cells intertwined with the axons of olfactory receptor cells.

glomerulus

A microscopic, spherical tuft of blood capillaries, especially that within the BOWMAN'S CAPSULES of the kidney, through which urine is filtered. From the Latin glomus , a ball of thread.

glomerulus

a knot of capillaries found in the vertebrate kidney, enclosed in the BOWMAN'S CAPSULE. Substances such as water and any small molecules dissolved in it filter from the blood, across the endothelium of the capillaries and the epithelium of the capsule, into the tubules leading to the LOOP OF HENLE.

Glomerulus (glomeruli)

A small tuft of blood capillaries in the kidney, responsible for filtering out waste products.

glomerulus

tuft of capillary loops within the (Bowman's) capsule of a renal nephron

glo·mer·u·lus

, pl. glomeruli (glō-meryū-lŭs, -lī)
1. A plexus of capillaries.
2. A tuft formed of capillary loops at the beginning of each nephric tubule in the kidney.
3. The twisted secretory portion of a sweat gland.
Synonym(s): Bowman capsule.
[Mod. L. dim. of L. glomus, a ball of yarn]

glomerulus (glōmer´yələs),

n a cluster of blood vessels or nerve fibers, such as the cluster of blood vessels in the kidney that function as filters of the plasma portion of the blood.

glomerulus

pl. glomeruli [L.] a small tuft or cluster.

cerebellar glomerulus
termination sites for dendrites and axons of cerebellar and medullary and spinal nerve fibers.
olfactory glomerulus
termination points of olfactory nerves in the olfactory lobes.
renal glomerulus
a small convoluted mass of capillaries, a network of vascular tufts, encased in the malpighian or Bowman's capsule.
The glomerulus is an integral part of the nephron, the basic unit of the kidney. Each nephron is capable of forming urine by itself, and each kidney has many nephrons. The specific function of each glomerulus is to bring blood (and the waste products it carries) to the nephron. As the blood flows through the glomerulus, about one-fifth of the plasma passes through the glomerular membrane, collects in the malpighian capsule, and then flows through the renal tubules. Much of this fluid passes back into the blood via the small capillaries around the tubules (peritubular capillaries). The continuous filtration of fluid from the glomeruli and its reabsorption into the peritubular capillaries is made possible by a high pressure in the glomerular capillary bed and a low pressure in the peritubular bed.
Any disease of the glomeruli, such as acute or chronic glomerulonephritis, must be considered serious because it interferes with the basic functions of the kidneys; that is, filtration of liquids and excretion of certain end products of metabolism and excess sodium, potassium and chloride ions that may accumulate in the blood.
References in periodicals archive ?
The glomerular capillary walls are thickened secondary to the intramembranous deposits in the lamina densa of the GBM.
Intense, linear, and granular or nodular staining for C3 is seen along the glomerular capillary walls and in the mesangial regions in type-II MPGN.
The impact of experimental diabetes mellitus in rats on glomerular capillary number and sizes.
As seen in Figure 1, G through I, IgG was expressed as strong, granular strings along the glomerular capillary walls in FBMN mice, whereas it was weakly expressed in the sclerotic area in FSGS mice and very blurred in the NC mice.
Further studies are needed to support the K5 interaction with endothelial cells in the disease process and to identify where K5 is deposited in the glomerular capillary wall.
Immunofluorescent staining for IgG (Figure 5, B), and often C3, reveals granular deposits along the glomerular capillary walls.
Such endothelial injury may be associated with low-level intraglomerular clotting, loss of endothelial fenestrations, and subendothelial glomerular capillary widening.
Obviously, if there is no outflow from the Bowman capsule, glomerular capillary filtration will cease.
Light microscopy showed glomeruli with moderate thickening of glomerular capillary walls.
Electron microscopy disclosed numerous mesangial, epimembranous, and intramembranous dense deposits and large subendothelial deposits in many glomerular capillary loops.
Immunofluorescence examination of 5 glomeruli revealed diffuse linear and pseudolinear deposition of polyclonal IgG (++++/4+) (Figure 2, A), IgA (+/4+), C1q (+/ 4+), and C3 (++/4+) along the glomerular capillary walls.
Fibrillary GN is a glomerular deposition disease that is characterized by infiltration of the glomerular capillary walls and mesangium by fibrillary material.