Figure 3c shows that legislation on surrogacy was first adopted in some countries only in the mid-1980s; in fact, non-traditional forms of gestational surrogacy
have become possible only recently, thanks to innovations such as in-vitro fertilization.
Both are called gestational surrogacy
, the difference between them is the origin of an egg.
The objectification of the surrogate mother has been enforced since the technological development of gestational surrogacy
For example, while many courts are willing to uphold gestational surrogacy
agreements, which involve a surrogate who is not genetically related to the child she is carrying, traditional surrogacy arrangements, which involve a surrogate whose genetic materials are used to conceive the child, are significantly less likely to be legally recognized.
permitting only gestational surrogacy
can adequately safeguard the
Ten Measures of Parentage Permissiveness 1 Assisted Conception: Female Partner 2 Assisted Conception: More Than Two Parents 3 Surrogacy: Heterosexual Parents 4 Surrogacy: Two Female Parents 5 Surrogacy: Two Male Parents 6 Surrogacy: Single Female Parent 7 Surrogacy: Single Male Parent 8 Surrogacy: No Genetic Relation Requirement 9 Gestational Surrogacy
as Contract 10 Traditional Surrogacy as Contract Table 2.
is where an embryo is created using the mother's egg and father's sperm and then implanted into a woman who will carry the baby for the pregnancy but has no biological link to the child.
differs from traditional surrogacy where a surrogate also supplies the egg, and intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is used to fertilize it.
Calvert decision is that professionals in the field of surrogacy practice by using enforceable gestational surrogacy
As the first in-depth, ethnographic study of labor within a commercialized, transnational market for gestational surrogacy
, Amrita Pande's Wombs in Labor is foundational.
174) For the purposes of this Article, the regulations that are most important are those that surround the business of gestational surrogacy
, in particular those that might protect surrogates from exploitation in unequal bargaining positions.
In Russia, gestational surrogacy
is legal, whether commercial or altruistic (Svitnev, 2010).