germination

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germination

 [jer″mĭ-na´shun]
the sprouting of a seed, spore, or plant embryo.

germination

/ger·mi·na·tion/ (jer″mĭ-na´shun) the sprouting of a seed, spore, or plant embryo.ger´minative

germination

[jur′minā′shən]
Etymology: L, germen, sprout
1 the initial growth and development of an organism from the time of fertilization to the formation of the embryo.
2 the sprouting of a spore or the seed of a plant. germinate, v.
Germinationclick for a larger image
Fig. 171 Germination . A typical seedling.

germination

the beginning of the growth of a seed, spore or other structure that is dormant. Seed DORMANCY can be broken by several factors, depending on the species:
  1. the removal of a germination inhibitor which can be leached out by water.
  2. a period of cold temperature (STRATIFICATION).
  3. exposure to the correct wavelength of light to stimulate PHYTOCHROMES in the seed, for example, lettuce seeds require red light for germination and are inhibited by far-red light.
  4. rupture of a thick testa by (i) microbial breakdown, (ii) abrasive action of soil (as in desert plants), (iii) heat from bush fires, (iv) the effect of digestive juices (as when eaten by birds), (v) the softening action of water. Once dormancy is broken a regular sequence of events takes place: water is imbibed which hydrates the tissues increasing enzymic action in the ALEURONE layer (when present), a process aided by the release of GIBBERELLIN from the embryo; food stores are mobilized by production of enzymes in the ENDOSPERM or within the COTYLEDONS; AUXINS and CYTOKININS are formed which promote cell division and enlargement, causing the embryo to grow and burst through the testa. See Fig. 171 .

There are two main types of germination, depending on whether the seed cotyledons are carried above the soil (EPIGEAL) or remain below ground (HYPOGEAL).

germination

the sprouting of a seed or spore or of a plant embryo.
References in periodicals archive ?
After 48h, The highest germination percentage (75%) and the best germination rate (0.
Germination tests lasted at least one month, but in treatments where the germination rate was low, the test was extended up to three months if there was no fungal infection.
Germination was monitored for 6 months and I estimated germination rate for each genotype across environmental treatments.
If water sucking by the seed disordered, metabolic activity of germination decreased, consequently the period in which radicle released from the seed will be prolonged and subsequently germination rate will be reduced [2, 3].
After the end of germination period, the following indices were measured: germination percentage, germination rate, mean time to germination, seedling dry weight, and seedling fresh weight.
al [23] have shown according to obtained results, germination rate was significantly decreased by the period of erosion.
Evaluation of different treatments of Artemisia annua and Loliumrigidum root extracts on the germination rate of Sorghum bicolor:
The interaction of Vareties, poly ethylene glycol and dormancy break treatments on germination percentage and coleoptile length, and Germination rate, uniformity of germination not significant (table 1).
Indeed, Maun and Riach [25] observed that the highest germination rate of caryopses and the emergence of seedlings of the temperate grass Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook) Scribn.
The highest seed germination rate was observed in control treatment as compared to salinized treatments.
With a total of 9,500 seeds and a germination rate of over 85%, the package of seeds is said to be suitable for persons wanting to start their own vegetable garden or want to build their own survival seed vault.