genetics

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genetics

 [jĕ-net´iks]
the branch of biology dealing with the phenomena of heredity and the laws governing it.
biochemical genetics the study of the fundamental relationships between genes, protein, and metabolism. This involves the study of the cause of many specific heritable diseases. These include those resulting from the improper synthesis of hemoglobins and protein, such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia, both of which are hereditary anemias; some 200 inborn errors of metabolism, such as phenylketonuria and galactosemia, in which lack or alteration of a specific enzyme prohibits proper metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, or fats and thus produces pathologic symptoms; and genetically determined variations in response to certain drugs, for example, isoniazid.
clinical genetics the study of the causes and inheritance of genetic disorders. In addition to the diseases mentioned under biochemical genetics, other aspects of clinical genetics include the study of chromosomal aberrations, such as those that cause mental retardation and down syndrome, and immunogenetics, or the genetic aspects of the immune response and the transmission of genetic factors from generation to generation.

Many pediatric hospital admissions involve genetic disorders. In obstetrics and neonatal medicine, prenatal diagnosis of genetic defects and improvement of pre- and perinatal conditions are a major concern. In adults, such diseases as breast cancer, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus have all been found to have predisposing genetic components that are relevant to identification of risk factors and early diagnosis.

ge·net·ics

(jĕ-net'iks),
1. The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biologic inheritance.
2. The genetic features and constitution of any single organism or set of organisms.
[G. genesis, origin or production]

genetics

/ge·net·ics/ (jĕ-net´iks) the study of heredity.
biochemical genetics  the science concerned with the chemical and physical nature of genes and the mechanism by which they control the development and maintenance of the organism.
clinical genetics  the study of genetic factors influencing the occurrence of a pathologic condition.

genetics

(jə-nĕt′ĭks)
n.
1. (used with a sing. verb) The branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms.
2. (used with a pl. verb) The genetic constitution of an individual, group, or class.

genetics

[jənet′iks]
1 the science that studies the principles and mechanics of heredity, specifically the means by which traits are passed from parents to offspring and the causes of the similarities and differences between related organisms.
2 the total genetic makeup of a particular individual, family, group, or condition. Kinds of genetics are clinical genetics, molecular genetics, and population genetics. See also cytogenetics, Mendel's laws.

genetics

Genetics The study of the patterns of inheritance of specific traits, and how qualities or traits are transmitted from parents to offspring. See Behavioral genetics, Cancer genetics, Classic cytogenetics, Heredity, Inheritance, Medical genetics, Molecular cytogenetics, Pharmacogenetics, Reverse genetics, Trait, Variance.

ge·net·ics

(jĕ-net'iks)
1. The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biologic inheritance.
2. The genetic features and constitution of any single organism or set of organisms.
[G. genesis, origin or production]

genetics

The branch of biology concerned with the structure, location, abnormalities and effects of the GENES. Medical genetics is mainly concerned with the expression of abnormal genes or gene combinations in the production of disease. Knowledge of such matters allows useful GENETIC COUNSELLING. William Bateson, (1861–1926) was the English physiologist whose studies and publications led to his being known as the ‘father of genetics’. Curiously, Bateson persistently opposed the chromosome theory of heredity.

genetics

the science that investigates patterns of inheritance between generations, together with how genes express themselves within the lifetime of individual organisms.

Genetics

The study of hereditary traits passed on through the genes.
Mentioned in: Gene Therapy

genetics,

n branch of scientific study concerned with heredity and the causes of variance between related organisms.

ge·net·ics

(jĕ-net'iks)
1. Branch of science concerned with means and consequences of transmission and generation of components of biologic inheritance.
2. Genetic features and constitution of any single organism or set of organisms.
[G. genesis, origin or production]

genetics,

n the science that deals with the origin of the characteristics of an individual.

genetics

the branch of biology dealing with the phenomena of heredity and the laws governing it. Expressed in other definitions, e.g. population genetics.

biochemical genetics
the science concerned with the chemical and physical nature of genes and the mechanism by which they control the development and maintenance of the organism.
The field of biochemical or molecular genetics is relatively new and is increasingly used to define the cause of many inherited diseases. These diseases usually result from defective protein synthesis, such as hemophilia A and immunodeficiency, and more than 200 so-called 'inborn errors' of metabolism identified thus far in animals, such as mannosidosis and galactosemia, in which lack or alteration of a specific enzyme prohibits proper metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins or fats and thus produces clinical signs.
clinical genetics
the study of the possible genetic factors influencing the occurrence of a pathological condition. In addition to the diseases mentioned under biochemical genetics, other aspects of clinical genetics include the study of chromosomal aberrations, such as those that cause testicular hypoplasia, and immunogenetics, or the genetic aspects of the immune response and the transmission of genetic factors from generation to generation.
molecular genetics
the study of the molecular structure of genes, involving DNA and RNA. See also deoxyribonucleic acid.

Patient discussion about genetics

Q. Are there genetic factors involving allergies? My entire family suffers from different allergies. It is clear that there is a connection, is that true?

A. The risk of allergic sensitization and the development of allergies varies with age, with young children most at risk. It is known that there is a strong genetic relation and allergies are usually common among family members. Ethnicity may play a role in some allergies, however racial factors have been difficult to separate from environmental influences and changes due to migration.

Q. Is celiac genetic? I have one son with celiac disease from my first marriage and me second wife is now pregnant,I was wondering what are the chances for this soon to be born daughter of mine to have celiac as well- if I maybe carry the genetic flaw and is there a way to find out?

A. Celiac disease is a very common illness (about 1 in a 100 people suffer from it in different levels), and it is known to have a strong genetic connection. However, there is not one specific mutation that you can get genetic testing to see if you are carrying it. Your soon to be born daughter will have a higher chance than the regular population to suffer from the disease, but it does not necessarily mean she will.

Q. is Bipolar genetic?

A. Bipolar disorder has a very strong genetic background: The approximate lifetime risk of this disease in relatives of a bipolar patient is 40 to 70 percent for a monozygotic (identical) twin and 5 to 10 percent for a first degree relative, compared with 0.5 to 1.5 percent for an unrelated person.

More discussions about genetics
References in periodicals archive ?
With less than one per cent of the global population born with this rare genetic trait, Seers became fascinated with it, thanks to her grandmother.
A genetic trait that causes people to lack the protein protects most Africans against this kind of malaria.
If Monsanto's application succeeds, it will be the first time that more than one genetic trait has been added to a plant.
In traditional genetics, scientists selected a genetic trait, such as resistance to a particular disease, then began a search that sometimes took years for the particular gene that caused, or coded, for that trait.
Many scientists now believe that alcoholism is at least partially a genetic trait and that some people are born with a predisposition toward becoming alcoholic.
Neogen's new GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (TM)(GGP-HD) contributes comprehensive data included in Angus genomic-enhanced expected progeny differences (GE-EPDs), which reveal an animal's genetic potential well before breeding, as well as the animal's parentage, and important genetic trait and disease information on the animal.
To test whether this was a cause or a coincidence, Bates designed an experiment to determine whether the same genetic trait led to migraine symptoms in mice.
Today, such vital genetic trait information is the basis formatings to improve the next generation of U.
Coverage includes mapping, characterization and deployment of quantitative genetic trait loci; marker assisted breeding; genomic colinearity and its application in crop plant improvement; plant genetic engineering; plant germplasm collections as sources of useful genes; the impact of plant genomics on maize improvement; plant genomics and its impact on wheat breeding; and genomics and molecular breeding for root and tuber crop improvement.
A genetic trait like impulsivity combined with environmental risk factors--exposure to street violence or peer pressure from gangs, for example--might increase the chance of someone becoming violent.
The site provides a mechanism for researchers and those who believe a genetic trait runs in their family (or pet) to meet directly via email and negotiate terms for the exchange of DNA samples and information.
Now scientists have discovered a third genetic trait linked to these two that explains why size doesn't matter as much as biologists expected.