Also, because the study began before the discovery that alterations in two genes, BRCA1
and 2, may predispose a woman to breast cancer, the trial could not determine whether tamoxifen had unusual benefit for women carrying the genes.
7] One of these genes, BRCA1
, was identified in 1994 and is thought to be a tumor suppressor gene that codes for a protein capable of negatively regulating tumor growth.
Current tests for this disease examine two genes, BRCA1
and BRCA2, which account for only five percent of the inherited risk for early-onset breast cancer.
Scientists at the University of Nottingham focused on inherited cancer causing genes, BRCA1
and BRCA2, as they cause up to 10 percent of breast cancers that are more often fatal than non-genetic tumours.
The study found that a chemical called indol-3-carbonol (I3C) which occurs naturally in cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and sauerkraut, boosts the activity of two genes, BRCA1
and BRCA2, which then work to detect and repair damaged DNA.
Two previously identified genes, BRCA1
and BRCA2, are linked to an inherited form of breast cancer, which accounts for 5 to 10 percent of cases.
The study, involving 979 men with prostate cancer and 1251 men without the disease, looked at whether participants carried mutations for either of two genes, BRCA1
The well known breast cancer genes, BRCA1
and BRCA2, account for only 5% of breast cancers in white women.
It is only in the past 10 years that scientists have identified faults on two genes, BRCA1
and BRCA2, that are linked to breast and ovarian cancer.
At least one in 200 women have an inherited mutation in one of two genes, BRCA1
and BRCA2, which both increase chances of breast cancer.
Positional cloning is a highly productive method of finding disease genes, responsible for more human disease-related gene discoveries than any other method, and includes discovery of the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1
and BRCA2, the AGT salt-sensitive hypertension gene and the melanoma susceptibility gene, MTS1.
The two genes, BRCA1
and BRCA2, code for proteins with novel tumor suppressor functions.