gastrolith

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calculus

 [kal´ku-lus] (pl. cal´culi) (L.)
an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the body, chiefly in hollow organs or their passages. Called also stone. See also kidney stone and gallstone. adj., adj cal´culous.
biliary calculus gallstone.
bladder calculus vesical calculus.
bronchial calculus broncholith.
calcium oxalate calculus oxalate calculus.
dental calculus a hard, stonelike concretion, varying in color from creamy yellow to black, that forms on the teeth or dental prostheses through calcification of dental plaque; it begins as a yellowish film formed of calcium phosphate and carbonate, food particles, and other organic matter that is deposited on the teeth by the saliva. It should be removed regularly by a dentist or dental hygienist; if neglected, it can cause bacteria to lodge between the gums and the teeth, causing gum infection, dental caries, loosening of the teeth, and other disorders. Called also tartar.
gastric calculus gastrolith.
intestinal calculus enterolith.
lung calculus a hard mass or concretion formed in the bronchi around a small center of inorganic material, or from calcified portions of lung tissue or adjacent lymph nodes. Called also pneumolith.
mammary calculus a concretion in one of the lactiferous ducts.
nasal calculus rhinolith.
oxalate calculus a hard urinary calculus of calcium oxalate; some are covered with minute sharp spines that may abrade the renal pelvic epithelium, and others are smooth. Called also calcium oxalate calculus.
phosphate calculus a urinary calculus composed of a phosphate along with calcium oxalate and ammonium urate; it may be hard, soft, or friable, and so large that it may fill the renal pelvis and calices.
prostatic calculus a concretion formed in the prostate, chiefly of calcium carbonate and phosphate. Called also prostatolith.
renal calculus kidney stone.
staghorn calculus a urinary calculus, usually a phosphate calculus, found in the renal pelvis and shaped like the antlers of a stag because it extends into multiple calices.
urate calculus uric acid calculus.
urethral calculus a urinary calculus in the urethra; symptoms vary according to the patient's sex and the site of lodgment.
uric acid calculus a hard, yellow or reddish-yellow urinary calculus formed from uric acid.
urinary calculus a calculus in any part of the urinary tract; it is vesical when lodged in the bladder and renal (see kidney stone) when in the renal pelvis. Common types named for their primary components are oxalate calculi, phosphate calculi, and uric acid calculi. Called also urolith.
uterine calculus any kind of concretion in the uterus, such as a calcified myoma. Called also hysterolith and uterolith.
vesical calculus a urinary calculus in the urinary bladder. Called also bladder calculus.

gas·tro·lith

(gas'trō-lith),
A concretion in the stomach.
Synonym(s): gastric calculus
[gastro- + G. lithos, stone]

gastrolith

(găs′trə-lĭth′)
n.
1. A pathological stony mass formed in the stomach; gastric calculus.
2. A small stone found in the stomach of some reptiles, fish, and birds that aids in digestion by helping grind ingested food material.

gas·tro·lith

(gas'trō-lith)
A concretion in the stomach.
[gastro- + G. lithos, stone]

gastrolith

a mass of CALCAREOUS material occasionally found in the proventriculus of crustaceans. It is probably formed as a result of calcium withdrawal from the exoskeleton prior to moulting.

gastrolith

a calculus in the stomach.
References in periodicals archive ?
Since calcium accumulation in the gastroliths is intimately connected to the molt cycle, the size of the gastroliths may be used as a premolt indicator (Pavey and Fielder, 1990), complementing the classical molt-staging method of Drach and Tchernigovtzeff (1967).
2005) was performed exclusively in intermolt male crayfish that had no apparent gastroliths when observed using digital X-ray imaging.
14; postmolt--after ecdysis, apparent gastroliths in the stomach.
1) The amount of calcium that flows into R cells is higher during postmolt, since the calcium coming from reingestion of exuviae is added to the calcium released from gastroliths and intracellular stores (Zanotto and Wheatly, 2003).
It is generally accepted that the hepatopancreatic cells play a considerable role in massive calcium movements between the exoskeleton and the hepatopancreatic and gastrolith storage sites during premolt and postmolt stages of the molting cycle in crustaceans (Wheatly, 1996, 1997, 1999).
Calcium transport in crayfish gastrolith disc: morphology of gastrolith disc and ultrahistochemical demonstration of calcium.
However, the Seismosaurus fossil found with the most gastroliths held only 15 kg of stones, the largest no bigger than a grapefruit.
Or, he notes, dinosaurs may have habitually swallowed rocks for their mineral content, and the gastroliths that survived to be fossilized were those that were resistant to erosion and stomach acid.
Understanding the mineralization function of well-characterized matrix proteins such as gastrolith matrix protein (GAMP) from crayfish gastroliths (31) or orchestin from the calcareous concretions of Orchestia (17) might contribute to a better understanding of how the amorphous calcium carbonate in the concretions forms and is stabilized.
Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding an insoluble matrix protein in the gastroliths of a crayfish, Procambarus clarkii.
Paleontologists often treat report of gastroliths skeptically because rivers can produce very similar stones.
He says it therefore appears that as the dinosaur swallowed, its diet of plant material would pass from the crop - where gastroliths ground it - to a gastrolith-free stomach where digestive enzymes attacked the food, then into the gizzard for more grinding, and finally into the intestines.