chemical warfare

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chemical warfare

the waging of war with poisonous chemicals and gases.
The use of chemicals as a weapon of mass destruction, deployed as gases; the tremendous morbidity caused by such weapons in World War I—killing or injuring roughly 1.3 million soldiers—led to their ban under the ‘Geneva Protocol’ of 1925

chemical warfare

Waging war with toxic chemical agents. Agents include nerve gases; agents that cause temporary blindness, paralysis, hallucinations, or deafness; irritants to the eyes and lungs; blistering agents, e.g., mustard gas; defoliants; and herbicides.

Patient care

Victims of a chemical exposure or attack require decontamination, ideally on site as rapidly as possible by specially equipped and trained Emergency Medical Services (EMS)/fire personnel or hospital-based health care professionals. Decontamination includes isolation of the victim, preferably outdoors or in a sealed, specially ventilated room; removal of all of the victim's clothing and jewelry; protection of any part of the victim's body that has not been exposed to toxins; repeated irrigation and flushing of exposed skin with water (a dilute wound-cleansing solution, such as Dakin’s solution, may be used on skin but not on the eyes or within penetrating wounds); additional irrigation of wounded skin with sterile solution (typically for about 10 min longer than the irrigation of intact skin); irrigation of the eyes with saline solution (about 15 min); cleansing beneath the surface of exposed fingernails or toenails; and collection and disposal of effluent and contaminated clothing. To avoid secondary injuries and exposures, trained personnel who carry out decontamination must wear chemical masks with a filtered respirator, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA), and splash-resistant protective clothing that covers all skin and body surfaces and is impervious to all chemicals. Following decontamination, victims require triage and treatment.

Treatments for chemical exposures include both supportive care (such as the administration of oxygen, intravenous fluids, analgesics, topical remedies, and psychosocial support) and the administration of antidotes or chemical antagonists such as physostigmine. Details of the treatment for most specific exposures may be found in references such as the National Library of Medicine’s website: www.sis.nlm.nih.gov/Tox/ChemWar.html. See: biological warfare.

chemical

1. pertaining to chemistry.
2. a substance composed of chemical elements, or obtained by chemical processes. See also toxin.

chemical adjuvant
a chemical added to another to improve its activity. For example, mineral gels added to vaccines. May also be a chemical added to feed to improve digestion, e.g. monensin in ruminants. These are more commonly referred to as additives. See also adjuvant.
agricultural chemical
chemical used in agriculture. Includes pesticides, anthelmintics, fertilizers, algaecides, herbicides, soil fumigants and the like.
chemical environment
that part of the animals' environment that is composed of chemicals. For farm livestock this includes fertilizers, defoliants, worm drenches, insect sprays, adjuvants to feed. For companion animals see household chemical (below).
household chemical
the roster of chemicals that one can expect to find in the average household. Includes insect sprays and repellents, snail bait, rodenticide, garden sprays, human medicines and the like.
chemical pneumonitis
results from aspiration of gastric acids.
chemical senses
see olfaction (2), taste.
chemical shearing
causing the fleece of sheep to be shed by the administration of a chemical substance to the sheep. Cyclophosphamide and mimosine have been used experimentally but there is no commercially available system.
chemical spoilage
occurs in preserved foods, especially canned ones. Is usually the result of interaction between the contents and an imperfect container. There may be gas produced, e.g. hydrogen swells, or discoloration of the tin.
chemical warfare
agents used include: (1) systemic poisons, e.g. hydrocyanic acid; (2) lung irritants, e.g. chlorine, phosgene; (3) lacrimators (weeping stimulators), e.g. CN, CAP, CS; (4) sternutators (sneeze stimulators); (5) vesicants, e.g. mustards, nitrogen mustards, arsenic mustards and nettle gases; (6) nerve gases, e.g. organophosphorus compounds.
References in periodicals archive ?
Activists also said they had received information on gas attacks in the city of Hassakeh, but gave no details.
According to Hersh, this effectively implicates Turkey's role in the gas attack.
In Cyprus, experts are assessing how to protect 4,000 British military personnel from any Syrian gas attack.
The US had seemed to be gearing up for a strike against President Bashar Al Assad's forces over an August 21 poison gas attack, but is now
Saudi Foreign Minister Saud Al-Faisal said condemnation of Syria over the poison gas attack, which US officials say killed 1,429 people, was not enough.
AFP- Syriaexpects a military attack "at any moment", a security official told AFPSaturday, just hours after UN experts probing a suspected gas attack blamed on the regime left the country.
The statement came amid growing signs that the United States and its Western allies are preparing a strike to punish Syria for the poison gas attack in the suburbs of Damascus.
Anti-government activists accuse the Syrian government of carrying out the toxic gas attack and have reported death tolls ranging from 136 to 1,300.
He is alleged to have played a part in the gas attack on the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995, which was masterminded by cult founder Shoko Asahara, whose real name is Chizuo Matsumoto.
TOKYO, June 15 (KUNA) -- Japanese police on Friday arrested the last fugitive from the religious cult that launched the deadly sarin nerve gas attack on the Tokyo subway system in 1995.
The Canadian parliament passed Motion M-505 which states that: "This House acknowledges the actions of Saddam Hussein against the Kurdish people in Iraq including the poison gas attack against Halabja on March 16, 1988, the destruction of Iraqi Kurdish villages and the systematic persecution of Kurds in Iraq and condemns these acts as crimes against humanity.
SADDAM Hussein's cousin "Chemical Ali" was hanged yesterday for a poison gas attack on the northern Iraqi Kurds in 1988 that killed 5,000 people.