analysis [ah-nal´ĭ-sis] (pl. anal´yses)
separation into component parts.
activity analysis the breaking down of an activity into its smallest components for the purpose of assessment.
bivariate analysis statistical procedures that involve the comparison of summary values from two groups on the same variable or of two variables within a group.
concept analysis examination of the attributes of a concept as it occurs in ordinary usage in order to identify the meanings attached to the concept.
content analysis a systematic procedure for the quantification and objective examination of qualitative data, such as written or oral messages, by the classification and evaluation of terms, themes, or ideas; for example, the measurement of frequency, order, or intensity of occurrence of the words, phrases, or sentences in a communication in order to determine their meaning or effect.
correlational analysis a statistical procedure to determine the direction of a relationship (positive or negative correlation) between two variables and the strength of the relationship (ranging from perfect correlation through no correlation to perfect inverse correlation and expressed by the absolute value of the correlation coefficient).
analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) a variation of analysis of variance that adjusts for confounding by continuous variables.
data analysis the reduction and organization of a body of data to produce results that can be interpreted by the researcher; a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods may be used, depending upon the nature of the data to be analyzed and the design of the study.
in psychoanalytic treatment, the analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the ego
, especially its defense mechanisms
against unacceptable unconscious impulses.
multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis
(MLVA) a laboratory tool designed to recognize tandem repeats
and other qualities in the genome
of an individual to provide a high resolution DNA fingerprint
for the purpose of identification.
multivariate analysis statistical techniques used to examine more than two variables at the same time.
a statistical procedure that is used to determine the number of required subjects in a study in order to show a significant difference at a predetermined level of significance and size of effect; it is also used to determine the power of a test from the sample size, size of effect, and level of significance in order to determine the risk of Type II error
when the null hypothesis
qualitative analysis the determination of the nature of the constituents of a compound or a mixture of compounds.
quantitative analysis determination of the proportionate quantities of the constituents of a compound or mixture.
analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms
to assess artificially produced genetic modifications or identify different strains of an organism.
a type of psychotherapy based on an understanding of the interactions (transactions) between patient and therapist and between patient and others in the environment; see also transactional analysis
analysis of variance ANOVA; a statistical test used to examine differences among two or more groups by comparing the variability between the groups with the variability within the groups.
the identification of patient or family needs that are not anticipated and the actions related to these needs in a system of managed care
. There are four kinds of origin for the variance: patient-family origin, system-institutional origin, community origin, and clinician origin.
vector analysis analysis of a moving force to determine both its magnitude and its direction, e.g., analysis of the scalar electrocardiogram to determine the magnitude and direction of the electromotive force for one complete cycle of the heart.
the manner or style of walking.
gait analysis evaluation of the manner or style of walking, usually done by observing the individual walking naturally in a straight line. The normal forward step consists of two phases: the stance phase, during which one leg and foot are bearing most or all of the body weight, and the swing phase, during which the foot is not touching the walking surface and the body weight is borne by the other leg and foot. In a complete two-step cycle both feet are in contact with the floor at the same time for about 25 per cent of the time. This part of the cycle is called the double-support phase.
An analysis of each component of the three phases of ambulation is an essential part of the diagnosis of various neurologic disorders and the assessment of patient progress during rehabilitation and recovery from the effects of a neurologic disease, a musculoskeletal injury or disease process, or amputation of a lower limb.
antalgic gait a limp adopted so as to avoid pain on weight-bearing structures, characterized by a very short stance phase.
ataxic gait an unsteady, uncoordinated walk, with a wide base and the feet thrown out, coming down first on the heel and then on the toes with a double tap.
double-step gait a gait in which there is a noticeable difference in the length or timing of alternate steps.
a gait in which the feet are dragged (rather than lifted) toward the crutches
a walk accomplished mainly by flexing the hip joint; seen in crossed leg palsy
one in which the patient involuntarily moves with short, accelerating steps, often on tiptoe, with the trunk flexed forward and the legs flexed stiffly at the hips and knees. It is seen in parkinson's disease
and other neurologic conditions that affect the basal ganglia
. Called also festination
a gait in forward motion using crutches
: first one crutch is advanced, then the opposite leg, then the second crutch, then the second leg, and so on.
Four-point gait. From Elkin et al., 2000.
gluteal gait the gait characteristic of paralysis of the gluteus medius muscle, marked by a listing of the trunk toward the affected side at each step.
helicopod gait a gait in which the feet describe half circles, as in some conversion disorders.
hemiplegic gait a gait involving flexion of the hip because of footdrop and circumduction of the leg.
intermittent double-step gait a hemiplegic gait in which there is a pause after the short step of the normal foot, or in some cases after the step of the affected foot.
Oppenheim's gait a gait marked by irregular oscillation of the head, limbs, and body; seen in some cases of multiple sclerosis.
scissors gait a crossing of the legs while advancing with slow, small steps.
spastic gait a walk in which the legs are held together and move in a stiff manner, the toes seeming to drag and catch.
the gait in footdrop
in which the advancing leg is lifted high in order that the toes may clear the ground. It is due to paralysis of the anterior tibial and fibular muscles, and is seen in lesions of the lower motor neuron, such as multiple neuritis, lesions of the anterior motor horn cells, and lesions of the cauda equina.
stuttering gait a walking disorder characterized by hesitancy that resembles stuttering; seen in some hysterical or schizophrenic patients as well as in patients with neurologic damage.
that in which the crutches
are advanced and then the legs are swung past them.
that in which the crutches
are advanced and the legs are swung to the same point.
an ataxic gait
in which the feet slap the ground; in daylight the patient can avoid some unsteadiness by watching his feet.
that in which both crutches
and the affected leg are advanced together and then the normal leg is moved forward. See illustration at crutches
that in which the right foot and left crutch or cane are advanced together, and then the left foot and right crutch. See illustration at crutches
exaggerated alternation of lateral trunk movements with an exaggerated elevation of the hip, suggesting the gait of a duck; characteristic of muscular dystrophy