# gait analysis

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Related to gait analysis: gait cycle

## analysis

[ah-nal´ĭ-sis] (pl. anal´yses)
separation into component parts.
activity analysis the breaking down of an activity into its smallest components for the purpose of assessment.
bivariate analysis statistical procedures that involve the comparison of summary values from two groups on the same variable or of two variables within a group.
blood gas analysis see blood gas analysis.
chromosome analysis see chromosome.
concept analysis examination of the attributes of a concept as it occurs in ordinary usage in order to identify the meanings attached to the concept.
content analysis a systematic procedure for the quantification and objective examination of qualitative data, such as written or oral messages, by the classification and evaluation of terms, themes, or ideas; for example, the measurement of frequency, order, or intensity of occurrence of the words, phrases, or sentences in a communication in order to determine their meaning or effect.
correlational analysis a statistical procedure to determine the direction of a relationship (positive or negative correlation) between two variables and the strength of the relationship (ranging from perfect correlation through no correlation to perfect inverse correlation and expressed by the absolute value of the correlation coefficient).
analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) a variation of analysis of variance that adjusts for confounding by continuous variables.
data analysis the reduction and organization of a body of data to produce results that can be interpreted by the researcher; a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods may be used, depending upon the nature of the data to be analyzed and the design of the study.
ego analysis in psychoanalytic treatment, the analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the ego, especially its defense mechanisms against unacceptable unconscious impulses.
gait analysis see gait analysis.
gastric analysis see gastric analysis.
multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) a laboratory tool designed to recognize tandem repeats and other qualities in the genome of an individual to provide a high resolution DNA fingerprint for the purpose of identification.
multivariate analysis statistical techniques used to examine more than two variables at the same time.
power analysis a statistical procedure that is used to determine the number of required subjects in a study in order to show a significant difference at a predetermined level of significance and size of effect; it is also used to determine the power of a test from the sample size, size of effect, and level of significance in order to determine the risk of Type II error when the null hypothesis is accepted.
qualitative analysis the determination of the nature of the constituents of a compound or a mixture of compounds.
quantitative analysis determination of the proportionate quantities of the constituents of a compound or mixture.
SNP analysis analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess artificially produced genetic modifications or identify different strains of an organism.
transactional analysis a type of psychotherapy based on an understanding of the interactions (transactions) between patient and therapist and between patient and others in the environment; see also transactional analysis.
analysis of variance ANOVA; a statistical test used to examine differences among two or more groups by comparing the variability between the groups with the variability within the groups.
variance analysis the identification of patient or family needs that are not anticipated and the actions related to these needs in a system of managed care. There are four kinds of origin for the variance: patient-family origin, system-institutional origin, community origin, and clinician origin.
vector analysis analysis of a moving force to determine both its magnitude and its direction, e.g., analysis of the scalar electrocardiogram to determine the magnitude and direction of the electromotive force for one complete cycle of the heart.

## gait

[gāt]
the manner or style of walking.
gait analysis evaluation of the manner or style of walking, usually done by observing the individual walking naturally in a straight line. The normal forward step consists of two phases: the stance phase, during which one leg and foot are bearing most or all of the body weight, and the swing phase, during which the foot is not touching the walking surface and the body weight is borne by the other leg and foot. In a complete two-step cycle both feet are in contact with the floor at the same time for about 25 per cent of the time. This part of the cycle is called the double-support phase.

An analysis of each component of the three phases of ambulation is an essential part of the diagnosis of various neurologic disorders and the assessment of patient progress during rehabilitation and recovery from the effects of a neurologic disease, a musculoskeletal injury or disease process, or amputation of a lower limb.
antalgic gait a limp adopted so as to avoid pain on weight-bearing structures, characterized by a very short stance phase.
ataxic gait an unsteady, uncoordinated walk, with a wide base and the feet thrown out, coming down first on the heel and then on the toes with a double tap.
double-step gait a gait in which there is a noticeable difference in the length or timing of alternate steps.
drag-to gait a gait in which the feet are dragged (rather than lifted) toward the crutches.
equine gait a walk accomplished mainly by flexing the hip joint; seen in crossed leg palsy.
festinating gait one in which the patient involuntarily moves with short, accelerating steps, often on tiptoe, with the trunk flexed forward and the legs flexed stiffly at the hips and knees. It is seen in parkinson's disease and other neurologic conditions that affect the basal ganglia. Called also festination.
four-point gait a gait in forward motion using crutches: first one crutch is advanced, then the opposite leg, then the second crutch, then the second leg, and so on.
Four-point gait. From Elkin et al., 2000.
gluteal gait the gait characteristic of paralysis of the gluteus medius muscle, marked by a listing of the trunk toward the affected side at each step.
helicopod gait a gait in which the feet describe half circles, as in some conversion disorders.
hemiplegic gait a gait involving flexion of the hip because of footdrop and circumduction of the leg.
intermittent double-step gait a hemiplegic gait in which there is a pause after the short step of the normal foot, or in some cases after the step of the affected foot.
Oppenheim's gait a gait marked by irregular oscillation of the head, limbs, and body; seen in some cases of multiple sclerosis.
scissors gait a crossing of the legs while advancing with slow, small steps.
spastic gait a walk in which the legs are held together and move in a stiff manner, the toes seeming to drag and catch.
steppage gait the gait in footdrop in which the advancing leg is lifted high in order that the toes may clear the ground. It is due to paralysis of the anterior tibial and fibular muscles, and is seen in lesions of the lower motor neuron, such as multiple neuritis, lesions of the anterior motor horn cells, and lesions of the cauda equina.
stuttering gait a walking disorder characterized by hesitancy that resembles stuttering; seen in some hysterical or schizophrenic patients as well as in patients with neurologic damage.
swing-through gait that in which the crutches are advanced and then the legs are swung past them.
swing-to gait that in which the crutches are advanced and the legs are swung to the same point.
tabetic gait an ataxic gait in which the feet slap the ground; in daylight the patient can avoid some unsteadiness by watching his feet.
three-point gait that in which both crutches and the affected leg are advanced together and then the normal leg is moved forward. See illustration at crutches.
two-point gait that in which the right foot and left crutch or cane are advanced together, and then the left foot and right crutch. See illustration at crutches.
waddling gait exaggerated alternation of lateral trunk movements with an exaggerated elevation of the hip, suggesting the gait of a duck; characteristic of muscular dystrophy.

## gait analysis

Rehab medicine Evaluation of the gait of Pts with a neurologic or orthopedic condition affecting the motor control system–eg, brain injury, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, musculoskeletal actuator systems, post polio, peripheral nerve injuries, orthopedic trauma/injuries or joint degeneration and amputation; an evaluation process that attempts to understand various aspects of gait–eg, gait mechanics, effects of disease, and how to manage gait disorders. See Gait.

## gait a·nal·y·sis

(gāt ă-nal'i-sis)
The systematic study of the kinetics and kinematics of gait cycles of humans and animals. Important in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of conditions.

## gait analysis

dynamic observation, record and analysis of the structure and function of the foot, lower limb and body during walking, together with evaluation of static and/or dynamic plantar pressures at specific plantar sites during stance and motion (Table 1 and Table 2)
• qualitative gait analysis gait analysis based on visual observation of patient from side, rear and front during normal walking

• quantitative gait analysis numerical analysis of ground reaction forces (GRF), i.e. Fx , Fy, Fz, relative to body weight

 Evaluation device Characteristics Static evaluation (standing patient) Plantarscope A glass platform, whose underside is viewed as a reflection in an angled mirror. Plantar tissues blanch on loading, and areas of greatest pressure show greatest blanching Podometer As a plantarscope, but modified to include foot size measurement and calcaneal deviation in the reflected image Pedobaroscope An internally lit sheet of glass with a plastic or card interface. When the person stands on the interface the relative plantar pressures are projected as a scaled image from the reflected light Dynamic evaluation (patient walking, walking/running on a treadmill) Black paper The feet are dusted with chalk and the patient walks along the length of the sheet of paper. Gait parameters are recorded from the chalk footprints Harris and Beath mat A rubber mat, marked in intersecting squares of varying pitch, is inked and covered with paper. Areas of high plantar pressure show increased densities of ink in the footprint recorded on the paper Pedobarograph A variant of the pedobaroscope, with good resolution and a colour-coded scale of dynamic plantar pressures Musgrave A research tool: a pressure plate embedded into a walkway and linked to a video camera that gives both static and dynamic three-dimensional images of the plantar pressures Kistler force plate A research tool: a force plate embedded into a walkway linked to a video camera that gives information about forces passing through foot joints, and the foot in all three planes of space TechScan An in-shoe foil that generates images of plantar pressures during gait
 Phase of the cycle Period Comment Stance phase (60%) Contact From heel strike to foot flatFoot unlocks to act as a shock absorber and adapt to irregularities in the ground surface Midstance From foot flat to heel liftThe total weight-bearing surface of the foot is in contact with the walking surface Propulsion From heel lift to toe offFoot is a rigid and stable lever Swing phase (40%) From toe off limb 1 to heel strike (limb 1)Body mass transfers from limb 1 to limb 2

## gait

the manner or style of locomotion. Often used in assessing horses and dogs. See also ataxia, dysmetria, incoordination, spastic, stringhalt, walk, trot, canter, gallop (2), cadence, five-gaited.

gait analysis
evaluation of the manner or style of walking, usually done by observing the animal as it walks or trots in a straight line. The normal forward step consists of two phases: the stance phase, during which one or more legs and feet are bearing most or all of the body weight, and the swing phase, during which the other feet are not touching the walking surface and the body weight is borne by the others. In a complete two-step cycle all feet are in contact with the ground at the same time for about 25% of the time. This part of the cycle is called the double-support phase.
An analysis of each component of the three phases of ambulation is an essential part of the diagnosis of various neurological disorders and the assessment of patient progress during rehabilitation and recovery from the effects of a neurological disease, a musculoskeletal injury or disease process, or amputation of a lower extremity.
antalgic gait
a limp adopted so as to avoid pain on weight-bearing structures, characterized by a very short stance phase.
ataxic gait
an unsteady, uncoordinated walk, employing a wide base.
diagonal gait
one in which a forelimb is moved in unison with its opposite hindlimb, e.g. trot.
double-step gait
a gait in which there is a noticeable difference in the length or timing of alternate steps.
high stepping gait
may be normal in some fancy gaited horses. In others it may be a sign of blindness or poor proprioception, usually because of a defect in the sensory nervous system. It may also be a manifestation of hypermetria.
horse gait
there are three natural gaits, walk, trot, canter and two artificial gaits, the foxtrot, rack. There are a number of other less well-defined gaits similar to foxtrot.
spastic gait
a walk in which the legs move in a stiff manner, the toes seeming to drag and catch.
staggery gait
exaggerated alternation of lateral trunk movements with an exaggerated elevation of the hip, suggesting the gait of a duck.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the study, 25 children with cerebral palsy underwent gait analysis and functional testing and participated in validated questionnaires preoperatively and at 1 year after multilevel lower extremity orthopedic surgery.
The running history and the diagnosis are collated into a report that details for the patient the information gained from the running gait analysis and includes a list of running shoes best suited to that gait.
Accelerometer and gyroscope based gait analysis using spectral analysis of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee," Journal of Physical Therapy Science, vol.
This book offers a clear and practical step by step guide that covers everything from the basic principles of clinical gait analysis through to more specific topics for the specialists in the field such as data processing, quality and how to set up and maintain a clinical gait analysis service.
These and other developments suggest that automated gait analysis might be ready for commercial use in the near future.
It fully covers essential information across a range of transtibial and transfemoral prostheses, components, biomechanics, evaluation, and gait analysis.
Choosing a shoe free from defects and based on individual gait analysis has aided injured patients in a faster return to safe running (1).
For students and new practitioners who use electromyography (EMG), including exercise scientists, physical and occupational therapists, and motor development specialists, this volume details the characteristics of the instrumentation (treated from a mathematical perspective), signal analysis techniques, and applications for biofeedback, back pain, sport activities, muscle fatigue, gait analysis, and other uses.
Following substantial investment, the facility has been launched at the college's Blossomfield campus to harness practical learning around sports therapy and massage treatments - including postural analysis, gait analysis and remedial exercise treatment of injuries.
Called gait analysis, the fitting process involves computerised monitoring of how the feet work when running, including which parts of the foot are put under more strain.

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