It has been shown that GPC3
sensitivity can be as high as 80% to 90% for moderately and poorly differentiated HCC, but as low as 50% to 67% for well-differentiated HCC.
Genes Tested AtP ALK APC ATM BAP1 BRCA2 BRIP1 BUB1B CDC73 CDH1 CEP57 CHEK2 CYLD DDB2 DICER1 ERCC3 ERCC4 ERCC5 EXT1 EXT2 FANCD2 FANCE FANCF FANCG FANCI GATA2 GPC3
HNF1A HOXB13 HRAS MLH1 MHS2 MSH6 MUTYH NBN PHOX2B PMS1 PMS2 PPM1D PRF1 RAD51D RBI RECQL4 RET RHBDF2 SDHC SDHD SLX4 SMAD4 SMARCA4 TP53 TSC1 TSC2 VHL WT1 BARD1 BLM BMPR1A BRCA1 CDK4 CDKN1C CDKN2A CEBPA DI53L2 EGFR EPCAM ERCC2 EZH2 FANCA FANCB FANCC FANCL FANCM FH FLCN KIT MAX MEN1 MET NF1 NF2 NSD1 PALB2 PRKAR1A PTCH1 PTEN RAD51C RUN XI SBDS SDHAF2 SDHB SMARCB1 STK11 5UFU TMEM127 WRN XPA XPC This chart shows all 98 cancer susceptible genes included in this new test.
Immunohistochemical staining results showed inhibin (+), CD99 (focal+), CD117 (focal+), Ki-67 (20%+), PLAP (focal+), OCT-4 (focal+), D2-40 (focal+), GPC3
(−), AFP (−), CD30 (−), and CK (focal+).
Two adjacent genes on the X chromosome, GPC3
and GPC4, have been implicated in SGBS.
The study presented at the International Liver Congress 2014 detected and expanded MHC-multimer-positive CD8+ T-cells specific for targeted GPC3
epitopes and grew T-cell clones, from which the most specific and active T-cell receptor was isolated.
Cell line/origin Selection Proteins References agent involved in the drug-resistant phenotype Gastric carcinoma EPG85-257P - - Lage (2003) EPG85-257RNOV Mitoxantrone BCRP, GPC3
, Lage (2003) Topo II (1), TAP (1) EPG85-257RDB Daunorubicin MDR1/P-gp Lage (2003) Pancreatic carcinoma EPP85-181P - - Lage and Dietel (2002) EPP85-181RNOV Mitoxantrone Topo II Lage and Dietel (2002) EPP85-181RDB Daunorubicin MDR1/P-gp Lage and Dietel (2002) Colon carcinoma HT-29 - - Liu et al.
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome is an X-linked condition characterised by pre- and postnatal overgrowth with visceral and skeletal anomalies due to a defect in the GPC3
gene, which plays a role in control of growth of embryonic mesodermal tissues (1).
5 WT3 * 16q WT4, FWT1 * 17q12-q21 GPC3
Xq26 Von Hippel-Lindau VHL 3p26-p25 syndrome Multifactorial Disorders Focal segmental ACTN4, FSGS1, FSGS 19q13 glomerulosclerosis FSGS2 11q21-q22 CD2AP, CMS 6p12 Systemic lupus SLEB1, SLE1 1q41-q42 erythematosis TNFSF6, APT1LG1, FASL 1q23 FCGR3A, CD16, IGFR3 1q23 SLEH1 11q14 SLEB3 4p16-pl5.
119) So far AFP and GPC3
are the only characteristic immunohistochemical markers for YST (Figure 8, C).
16) Therefore, GPC3
staining is not a reliable marker to differentiate UESL from hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.
29-33) In our experience, ARG1 is best used together with either HepPar1 or GPC3
to increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for HCC.
27,56-59) Immunohistochemistry for GPC3
demonstrates a cytoplasmic and sometimes membranous or canalicular staining pattern (Figure 7, E).