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It has been previously documented that E2F1 is able to recruit other histone acetyltransferases such as GCN5 to acetylate localized H3K9 residues (Guo et al.
GCN5 and E2F1 stimulate nucleotide excision repair by promoting H3K9 acetylation at sites of damage.
Besides the target of the ELONGATOR complex, SHY2/IAA3 gene is also the target of Arabidopsis GCN5 histone acetyltransferase and since its auxin-induced expression is not affected in elo mutants, it was suggested that there is a complex chromatin-related control and specificity in target gene selection.
Metformin suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis through induction of SIRT1 and GCN5.
One of these ethanol-regulated HATs is called GCN5 (Choudhury et al.
knock down of GCN5 histone acetyltransferase by siRNA decreases ethanol-induced histone acetylation and affects differential expression of genes in human hepatoma cells.
Table 1 Epigenetic Parameters Altered by Ethanol in the Liver and Gastrointestinal System Component Molecular Alterations/ Entity Possible Effect On DNA DNA methylation via DNA methyl Alcohol dehydrogenase transferase (DNMT) (ADH), genes for enzymes DNMT1, folate metabolism DNMT3a, and DNMT3b Histone Type of modification Acetylation ADH, LSD Methylation LSD Phosphorylation C-jun, plasminogen activatory inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) Modifying enzymes Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) GCN5 p300 MOZ Histone deacetylases (HDACs) HDAC 1,3,5,6,7,9,10,11 SIRT-1 micro-RNA Upregulation miR 03,20,21,29A,34a,101,103 miR107, 122, 132,148, 152, 155 miR 212, 217, 349, 705, 1224 Lipogenesis miR 1256 Downregulation Immune response miR 19b, 135, 182, 183, 200b miR 199a-3P
Histone acetyltransferase activity and interaction with ADA2 are critical for GCN5 function in vivo.
GCN5 was found to be present at each stage of embryo development.
The Marmorstein group has obtained a structure of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain of GCN5 bound to both its histone target and to its coenzyme-A cofactor.
The second structure, of yeast GCN5 in its unbound form, appeared along with editorial commentary in the August 3, 1999, issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
His biology project, "The Expression of Arabidopsis HAT GCN5 in Yeast" attempts to use a chemical from plants that controls what chemicals are made by the plant in yeast.
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