Mechanisms of enhanced oral availability of CYP3A4 substrates by grapefruit constituents, decreased enterocyte CYP3A4 concentration and mechanism-based inactivation by furanocoumarins
Additionally, it appears that well-known leaftying habits form the origin of the behavior that produces a shelter by tying the umbel above the larva protecting it from the UV that would activate furanocoumarins
(Berenbaum, 1983; Berenbaum and Passoa, 1999; Berenbaum and Zangerl, 1991; Berenbaum and Zangerl, 1994).
Grapefruit juice contains a group of compounds called furanocoumarins
, which knock out the CYP3A enzymes.
sativa populations, despite the fact that the plant makes furanocoumarins
that are toxic to the webworm.
ents it GRAPEFRUIT contains active ingredients called furanocoumarins
, which inhibit an enzyme in the intestines from doing its usual job of processing and detoxifying drugs.
Grapefruits also interact with CYP3A4 through chemicals called furanocoumarins
, which inactivate CYP3A4.
So, while grapefruit is great for helping to reduce hardening of the arteries, not to mention just tasting yummy, compounds in it called furanocoumarins
give it a dark side, and apparently just one generous glass of grapefruit juice can trigger the problem and last for more than 24 hours, making large or repeated doses cumulatively more dangerous for the patient.
The problem with grapefruit, according to Gmitter, is a family of organic chemical furanocoumarins
believed to inhibit enzymes from breaking down certain medication, leading to drugs entering the blood stream in higher concentrations than intended, causing an overdose.
Grapefruit juice, however, contains natural chemicals, furanocoumarins
, that inhibit an enzyme found in the gut that ordinarily kicks off the metabolism of about half of all drugs taken by mouth.
The effect of ingestion may last up to three days from a single glass of juice, because the furanocoumarins
in the juice bind to, and irreversibly inhibit, CYP3A4 molecules.
Giant hogweed sap contains toxic chemicals known as photosensitising furanocoumarins
, which react with light when in contact with human skin, causing blistering within 48 hours.
The chemicals in grapefruit that cause a higher absorption of some drugs are called furanocoumarins