frontal plate

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fron·tal plate

in the fetus, a cartilage plate between the lateral parts of ethmoid cartilage and the developing sphenoid bone.
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This Atractus can be distinguished from the rest of its congeners distributed in Venezuela by the combination of the following morphological and morphometric characters: (1) 17-17-17 dorsal scales, lacking apical spits, first paraventral row not enlarged; (2) rostral slightly visible when viewed from above; (3) loreal long, approximately three times longer than high, with latero-inferior edge slightly straight; (4) internasals with similar sides, almost squared; (5) frontal scale length shorter than DR; (6) 1+2 temporal formula, first temporal scale disposed between fifth and sixth supralabials (1.
16 shorter than frontal length); frontal scale hexagonal (Fig.
frontal scale with all margins free), except S-pattern (i.
Distinguished from all other congeners by the combination of the following features: anterior portion of trunk slightly deeper than wide, jaws short, snout blunt, tip of anal fin rounded in male, caudal fin rounded in male, pelvic-fin tip not reaching anus in male, dorsal-fin origin on vertical between base of last 3rd and 4th anal-fin rays, dorsal-fin rays 7-8, anal-fin rays 12-14, frontal squamation E-patterned, frontal scales arranged circularly, canal preopercular short and opened, contact organs absent, longitudinal series of scales 37-40, gill rakers of first branchial arch 1-2 + 8, red stripes on flank, jaws not distinctively pigmented, and round black spot on dorsal portion of caudal fin in female.
Distinguished from all other congeners by the combination of the following features: anterior portion of trunk slightly deeper than wide, jaws slightly elongated, snout pointed, tip of anal fin slightly pointed in male, caudal fin rounded in male, pelvic-fin tip reaching anterior portion of anal-fin base in male, dorsal-fin origin on vertical between base of penultimate and last anal-fin ray, dorsal-fin rays 7-9, anal-fin rays 13-15, frontal squamation E or D-patterned, frontal scales arranged circularly, canal preopercular short and opened, contact organs on flank scales in male, longitudinal series of scales 40-45, gill rakers of first branchial arch 2 + 10, pink stripes on flank, jaws not distinctively pigmented, and round black spot on dorsal portion of caudal fin in female.
Distinguished from all other congeners by the combination of the following features: anterior portion of trunk slightly wider than deep, jaws short, snout blunt, tip of anal fin rounded in male, caudal fin elliptical to acuminate in male, pelvic-fin tip reaching the anterior portion of the anal-fin base in male, dorsal-fin origin posterior to anal-fin base, dorsal-fin rays 5-7, anal-fin rays 9-11, frontal squamation S-patterned, contact organs absent, frontal scales arranged circularly, canal preopercular short and opened, longitudinal series of scales 29-32, gill rakers of first branchial arch 1 + 7, oblique rows of red dots on flank in male, transverse black bar through the chin, and no black spot on dorsal portion of caudal-fin.
Distinguished from all other congeners by the combination of the following features: anterior portion of trunk wider than deep, jaws short, snout blunt, tip of anal fin rounded in male, caudal fin elliptical to acuminate in male, pelvic-fin tip not reaching to urogenital papilla in male, dorsal-fin origin posterior to anal-fin base, dorsal-fin rays 5-6, anal-fin rays 8-10, frontal squamation S-patterned, frontal scales arranged circularly, canal preopercular short and opened, contact organs absent, longitudinal series of scales 32-34, gill rakers of first branchial arch 1 + 7, dark brown oblique bars on flank, transverse black bar through the chin, and no black spot on dorsal portion of caudal fin.
Distinguished from all other congeners by the combination of the following features: anterior portion of trunk slightly deeper than wide, jaws short, snout blunt, tip of anal fin rounded in male, caudal fin rounded in male, pelvic-fin tip reaching the anterior portion of the anal-fin base in male, dorsal-fin origin on vertical between base of 9th and 10th anal-fin rays, dorsal-fin rays 7-8, anal-fin rays 11-13, frontal squamation E-patterned, frontal scales arranged circularly, canal preopercular short and opened, contact organs on flank scales in male, longitudinal series of scales 29-32, gill rakers of first branchial arch 1 + 7, longitudinal rows of reddish brown dots stripes on flank in male, jaws black, and round black spot on dorsal portion of caudal-fin in female.
Frontal squamation F-patterned; E-scales not overlapping medially; frontal scales circularly arranged around A-scale.
Terminology for the arrangement of frontal scales follows Huber (1992), terminology for the cephalic neuromasts series follows Costa (2001).
Frontal scales arranged in a transverse pattern, each scale with posterior margin exposed.