Retro- Alveo- Consonants Labial Dental Alveolar flex palatal Stops/Affricates P t t t c Fricatives
/Spirants s Lateral Fricatives
Nasals m (n) n [?
The alveolar affricate /ts/ contrasts with the alveolar fricative
Historically, the segment in question was phonetically a voiced dental fricative
[d] (Virtaranta 1958; Vesterinen 1980).
at the beginnings of Primitive Germanic, the following changes occurred, in the following sequential stages: 1) IE aspirated voiced stops bh, dh, gh > [the symbol ">" should be read as "became" or "developed into"] Germanic (Gmc) voiced fricatives
[beta], [delta], [gamma] (later > b, d, g); 2) IE voiceless stops p,t,k > Gmc fricatives
f, [theta], and x [ > h initially]; and 3) IE voiced stops, b, d, g > Gmc voiceless stops p, t, k.
In particular, most fricatives
(/f/, /[theta]/, /v/, /[eth]/, and /[?
Since the changes before [j] and the velar fricatives
, palatalised or not, went along different paths the present brief contribution examines the temporal and regional circumstances of the raising only in the context before the fricatives
[c] (long [e:]) and [x] (long [o:]) in the two of the above sets of words, with particular attention paid to spelling variation reflecting the changes.
the issue of old BGDKPT (t > t > t > t) and the velar fricatives
*x and *g (h > x > h), and their various reflections in several Neo-Aramaic dialects, suggesting a "circular linguistic evolution," or a "linguistic perpetuum mobile.
Affricates plain ts tc voiceless aspirated ts h tc h voiced dz dz Fricatives
voiceless s c voiced z z Nasals m n Lateral 1 Lateral l fricative
Vibrant r Glide w Palatal Velar Glottal Stops plain c k voiceless aspirated c h k h voiced [?
Pressure sounds, particularly unvoiced sounds (plosives, fricatives
, and affricates) will provide an assessment of the degree of closure that can be achieved.
25) An observer who records all of the possible sound productions of the child, without considering any difference of function, can argue that, more or less simultaneously with the first words, single meaningless babbling syllables containing fricatives
, such as /f/, can still be heard occasionally in the child's speech, only to disappear shortly thereafter.
These languages lack fricatives
except for Isl and/hi.
Blevins conjectures that the occurrence of these fricatives
may have resulted from transcription errors, citing an instance where the handwriting of `one explorer, Goldsworthy .