resistance

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resistance

 [re-zis´tans]
1. opposition, or counteracting force, as opposition of a conductor to passage of electricity or other energy or substance.
2. the natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by noxious agents in its environment; see also immunity.
3. in psychology or psychiatry, conscious or unconscious defenses against change, preventing repressed material from coming into awareness; they can take such forms as forgetfulness, evasions, embarrassment, mental blocks, denial, anger, superficial talk, intellectualization, or intensification of symptoms. It occurs because the blocked association or understanding would be too threatening to face at this point in the therapy; identification of what point the resistance comes at can be an important indicator of the patient's unconscious patterns.
airway resistance the opposition of the tissues of the air passages to air flow: the mouth-to-alveoli pressure difference divided by the rate of air flow. Symbol RA or RAW.
androgen resistance resistance of target organs to the action of androgens, resulting in any of a spectrum of defects from a normal male phenotype in which men have normal genitalia but infertility to complete androgen resistance in which the individual has a female phenotype. Complete androgen resistance is an extreme form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which the individual is phenotypically female but is of XY chromosomal sex; there may be rudimentary uterus and tubes, but the gonads are typically testes, which may be abdominal or inguinal in position. Called also testicular feminization and testicular feminization syndrome. Incomplete androgen resistance is any of various forms less than the complete type, manifested by a male phenotype with various degrees of ambiguous genitalia such as hypospadias and a small vaginal pouch, a hooded phallus, or a bifid scrotum that may or may not contain gonads.
drug resistance the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of a drug that are lethal to most members of its species.
insulin resistance see insulin resistance.
multidrug resistance (multiple drug resistance) a phenomenon seen in some malignant cell lines: cells that have developed natural resistance to a single cytotoxic compound are also resistant to structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents. Called also cross-resistance.
peripheral resistance resistance to the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, especially the arterioles.
pulmonary vascular resistance the vascular resistance of the pulmonary circulation; the difference between the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and the left atrial filling pressure divided by the cardiac output. Called also total pulmonary vascular resistance.
total peripheral resistance the vascular resistance of the systemic circulation: the difference between the mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure divided by the cardiac output.
total pulmonary resistance (total pulmonary vascular resistance) pulmonary vascular resistance.
vascular resistance the opposition to blood flow in a vascular bed; the pressure drop across the bed divided by the blood flow, conventionally expressed in peripheral resistance units. Symbol R or R.

re·sis·tance

(rē-zis'tăns),
1. A force exerted in opposition to an active force.
2. The opposition in a conductor to the passage of a current of electricity, whereby there is a loss of energy and a production of heat; specifically, the potential difference in volts across the conductor per ampere of current flow; unit: ohm. Compare: impedance (1).
3. The opposition to flow of a fluid through one or more passageways (for example, blood flow, respiratory gases in the tracheobronchial tree), analogous to (2); units are usually those of pressure difference per unit flow. Compare: impedance (2).
4. In psychoanalysis, one's unconscious defense against bringing repressed thoughts to consciousness.
5. The ability of red blood cells to resist hemolysis and to preserve their shape under varying degrees of osmotic pressure in the blood plasma.
6. The natural or acquired ability of an organism to maintain its immunity to or to oppose the effects of an antagonistic agent, for example, a toxin, drug, or pathogenic microorganism.
7. In endocrinology, a defective target tissue response to a hormone. Synonym(s): hormone resistance
[L. re-sisto, to stand back, withstand]

resistance

/re·sis·tance/ (re-zis´tans)
1. opposition, or counteracting force.
2. the natural ability of an organism to resist microorganisms or toxins produced in disease.
3. the opposition to the flow of electrical current between two points of a circuit. Symbol R or .
4. in psychiatry, conscious or unconscious defenses that prevent material in the unconscious from coming into awareness.

airway resistance  the opposition of the tracheobronchial tree to air flow. Symbols RA, RAW.
androgen resistance  resistance of target organs to the action of androgens; the result is any of a spectrum of defects. In mild to incomplete types the person may have a definite male phenotype but infertility, or may have ambiguous genitalia. In the complete type the person has a female phenotype but XY chromosomes.
drug resistance  the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of a drug that are lethal to most members of its species.
electrical resistance  resistance (3).
multidrug resistance , multiple drug resistance in some malignant cell lines, resistance to many structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents in cells that have developed natural resistance to a single cytotoxic compound.
vascular resistance  the opposition to blood flow in a vascular bed.

resistance

(rĭ-zĭs′təns)
n.
1. The act or an instance of resisting or the capacity to resist.
2. Psychology A process in which the ego opposes the conscious recall of anxiety-producing experiences.
3. Biology
a. Ability (of an organism, tissue, or cell) to withstand a destructive agent or condition such as a chemical compound, a disease agent, or an environmental stressor: antibiotic resistance; resistance to fungal diseases; drought resistance.
b. Lack of normal response to a biologically active compound such as a hormone: insulin resistance.

resistance

[rizis′təns]
Etymology: L, resistere, to withstand
1 an opposition to a force, such as the resistance offered by the constriction of peripheral vessels to the blood flow in the circulatory system.
2 the frictional force that opposes the flow of an electric charge, as measured in ohms.
3 (in respiratory therapy) the process or power of acting against a force placed on it, pertaining to thoracic resistance, tissue resistance, and airway resistance.

resistance

Infectious disease The ability of a host to resist a pathogen; able to grow in the presence of a particular antibiotic. See Antibiotic resistance, Drug resistance, HIV drug resistance, Intermediate resistance Medtalk The ability to function in a normal or near-normal fashion, in the face of a toxic environment. See Activated protein C resistance, Airway resistance, Cross-resistance, Hormone resistance, Insulin resistance, Multidrug resistance, Nasal airway resistance, Radioresistance, Variable resistance, Vasopressin resistance Oncology Failure of a cancer to regress after RT or chemotherapy Psychiatry Conscious or unconscious psychologic defense against recall of repressed&ndash. ;.
unconscious thoughts

re·sis·tance

(rĕ-zis'tăns)
1. A passive force exerted in opposition to another active force.
2. The opposition in a conductor to the passage of a current of electricity, whereby energy is lost and heat produced; specifically, the potential difference in volts across the conductor per ampere of current flow; unit: ohm.
Compare: impedance (1)
3. The opposition to flow of a fluid through one or more passageways; units are usually those of pressure difference per unit flow.
Compare: impedance (2)
4. psychoanalysis A person's unconscious defense against bringing repressed thoughts to consciousness.
5. The ability of red blood cells to resist hemolysis and to preserve their shape under varying degrees of osmotic pressure in the blood plasma.
6. The natural or acquired ability of an organism to maintain its immunity to or to resist the effects of an antagonistic agent (e.g., pathogenic microorganism, toxin, drug).
[L. re-sisto, to stand back, withstand]

resistance

any inherited characteristic of an organism that lessens the effect of an adverse environmental factor such as a pathogen or parasite, a biocide (e.g. herbicide, insecticide, antibiotic) or a natural climatic extreme such as drought or high salinity.

resistance

innate ability to remain unaffected by specific pathogens

resistance

opposition to blood flow through vessels

resistance

opposition to flow of electric current, with resultant energy release e.g. heat generation

re·sis·tance

(rĕ-zis'tăns)
1. Force exerted in opposition to an active force.
2. Opposition to flow of a fluid through one or more passageways.
3. Ability of an organism to maintain its immunity to or to oppose effects of an antagonistic agent.
[L. re-sisto, to stand back, withstand]

resistance,

n ability of an individual to ward off the damaging effects of physical, chemical, or microbiologic injury; an immeasurable factor controlled and qualified by numerous local, systemic, and metabolic processes such as blood supply to tissues, nutritional status, age, and antibody formative ability.
resistance, abrasion,
n an object's capacity to oppose the type of movement that results in physical weathering. A greater degree of abrasion resistance is beneficial in the long-term preservation of the teeth's appearance and structure.
resistance, cross-,
n a state in which an organism is insensitive to several drugs of similar chemical nature.
resistance form,

resistance

1. opposition, or counteracting force, as opposition of a conductor to passage of electricity or other energy or substance.
2. the natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by noxious agents in its environment. See also immunity.
3. acquired ability of a bacterium or helminth or arthropod parasite to survive in the presence of concentrations of a chemical which are normally lethal to the organisms of that species. Occurs usually as a result of prolonged growth of the organism in sublethal concentrations of the agent and the survival of the organisms which have the least innate susceptibility to the agent. Has serious implications for animals which may find themselves without a suitable remedy for a disease, and for humans who may experience transfer of a resistant organism from the food supply.
4. in studies of respiration, an expression of the opposition to flow of air produced by the tissues of the air passages, in terms of pressure per amount of air per unit of time.

drug resistance
the ability of a microorganism to withstand doses of a drug that are lethal to most members of its species.
peripheral resistance
resistance to the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, especially the arterioles.
transferable resistance
antimicrobial resistance genes carried by bacteria on plasmids or transposons can often be readily acquired by other strains of the same species, by different species, and sometimes by organisms in different genera. Of considerable import in consideration of the implications of antimicrobial therapy in animal populations and in public health. The full significance is difficult to ascertain.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mr Barfoot took extra precaution when transporting French Resistance fighters in case they were secretly working for the Nazis.
Both were members of the French resistance during the Second world War, and Carroll draws on archival materials and correspondence to paint a picture of the way their lives, and their research and creative labors were disrupted by the war and the its effects on both men's post-war work, specifically Camus' The Plague and Monod's ground-breaking work in genetics and modern synthesis.
Mr Hessel, a former French Resistance fighter and concentration camp survivor, died last week at the age of 95.
London June 21 (ANI): Rare pictures of French Resistance agents being fired at the Nazis' largest execution site in France are on public display for the first time in Mont Valerien, a 19th century fort outside Paris.
On June 18, 1940, General de Gaulle appealed to his countrymen over the BBC airwaves after Marshal Philippe Petain's government announced its surrender to the Germans, saying: "The flame of French resistance must not and will not be extinguished".
Mont Valerien memorial to the French Resistance near Paris.
A WORLD War II veteran, who was shot down over France and was helped by the French Resistance, has died aged 86.
During World War II, the French Resistance used the tunnel system, while German soldiers established a bunker in the catacombs The Catacombs of Paris are well worth visiting, especially as they reveal a macabre, sacred, and silent underground world in stark contrast to the bustling, noisy, and lively action-filled streets of France's illustrious capital.
A touchdown by Stirling Mortlock ended French resistance although Alexis Palisson restored some pride.
Written specifically from a military history perspective, The Far Reaches of Empire chronicles how Britons and Yankees waged an efficient and effective counterinsurgency that eventually overwhelmed Acadian, Indian, and French resistance in Nova Scotia.
Terry Crowdy's FRENCH RESISTANCE FIGHTER: FRANCE'S SECRET ARMY (9781846030765, $17.
Annette Renard leads a double life in Nazi-occupied France as the town's teacher and also a new member of the French resistance movement.