Another case in point is that of the iterative stem formant
They found the sounds contained at least three low frequency formants
also found in human vowel sounds.
While not mentioned in the text, they show the second formant
shift, although not as clearly as between two identical vowel phonemes.
Eerola, Savela, Laaksonen and Aaltonen (2012) investigated the perception of short and long Finnish /y/ and /i/ vowels, and found that the location of the category boundary between /y/ and /i/ on the F2 formant
frequency axis, the width of the category boundary on the F2 formant
frequency axis, the goodness rating value of the prototypical /i/, and the location of the prototypical /i/ on the F2 formant
frequency axis were all independent of the stimulus duration.
The vowels were analysed from four perspectives: (a) the positions of the vowels on a chart displaying formants
1 and 2, (b) duration, (c) pitch or fundamental frequency and (d) loudness or intensity.
The acoustic measurements (Kouznetsov, Ott 1987) show that the frequencies of the first two formants
of Russian [i] and [e] are located in partly overlapping areas; the results of perceptual experiments also demonstrate auditory closeness of Russian [i] and [e].
Tables 1 and 2 present the average values of formant
frequencies with standard deviations in Hz and in Bark.
The distance between the first formants
of the overlong o and u is 1.
As can be seen, an acoustic characteristic of the glottal stop is the stability of the formants
in the preceding vowel, which is natural because in the case of the laryngeal stop the closure is formed not in the oral cavity but in the larynx.
The acoustic measurements included vowel duration and the first four formants
Pitch, as a voice correcting tool that allows users to modify a voice's pitch without affecting its formants
, is incorporated into Voice Morpher's main section as one of the three fundamental Voice Attributes.
at Work: Global Cities' Bike Share Plans