The forced migrants
who have adopted cross-border livelihood strategies have the opportunity to assess the local realities at home and weigh the costs and benefits of repatriation.
While this table is not intended to be representative of the Iraqi forced migrant
population in general, (74) it relates to the factors of a vulnerability context mentioned above and it frames a context in which they interpreted their experiences trying to access official sources of information.
The idea of "compact settlements" was first promoted by a Russian federal level non-governmental association, the Coordinating Council of Aid for Refugees and Forced Migrants
(CCARFM), as a "realistic solution" to the problems of housing, employment, and adaptation faced upon return, and as providing a necessary feeling of security, community and social inclusion.
Often the psychological or emotional issues counselors are trained to address are not the most pressing concerns for a forced migrant
The local plight of forced migrants
has been discussed at length, but there are wider matters relevant to hegemony--how a people forms and is formed by its leaders.
Khalda's visits that day in 1996 encompassed three discrete and far-flung neighbourhoods in Cairo, then home to some 15 million residents and including a rapidly growing number of forced migrants
seeking safety and security from the hard-line Islamist government in Khartoum.
The legal/policy-driven term protracted refugee situations does not cover these new transnational contexts of prolonged transit that forced migrants
experience in the age of securitization of migration.
During their time in the city, forced migrants
negotiate survival and aspirations within a challenging, restrictive set of national and international contexts.
Not only did they represent forced migrants
, who fled from surrounding war zones, but they were the cruel testimony to the failed war adventures of the previous authoritarian political regime of Milosevic as well.
Although forced migrants
are unlikely to find themselves amongst the transnational elite that commentators such as Portes have in mind when they speak of "simultaneous presence" in more than one country, the nature and extent of their transnational ties remains an important factor in determining the possibilities open to there.
In her speech, the Pakistani envoy referred to the growing threats to global threats to peace and world order stemming from diverse sources -- climate change, poverty, unemployment, especially among youth, water scarcity, record number of refugees and forced migrants
, and the gross violations of human rights-and said regional organizations can contribute to addressing many of these challenges.
Eight suspected human traffickers thought to have forced migrants
to stay in the hold of a fishing boat in the Mediterranean as 49 of them suffocated on engine fumes have been arrested on suspicion of homicide, Italian police said on Tuesday.