Vinification methods, such as on-skin maceration time, affect the flavan-3-ol
concentration in wine.
The fractionation of PAC extract from cranberries has not only revealed the presence of tetramers to decamers, but also polymers formed of flavan-3-ols
catechin and epicatechin units.
Green tea contains more flavan-3-ols
whereas in black tea these components undergo enzymatic oxidation into more complex forms called theaflavins and thearubigins (Del Rio et al.
and units of the polymeric proanthocyanidins generally consist of two of the four possible isomers, (+) catechin, 2,3-cis, and (-) epieatechin, 2,3-trans (Stafford, 1995).
Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols
on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.
At the conclusion of this trial, the combined one-year intervention with flavan-3-ols
and isoflavones resulted in a significant improvement in biomarkers of CVD risk in postmenopausal type 2 diabetic patients, compared to placebo.
Researchers examined the relationship of the six main subclasses of flavonoids commonly consumed in the US diet - flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols
, flavonoid polymers, flavonols and flavones - with risk of ischemic, hemorrhagic and total stroke.
Editor's note: Flavonoids are a class of compounds that include flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols
, flavonols, flavones, and polymers, and are abundant in berries, tea, and other plant foods.
They found that phenolic grape extracts composed mainly of flavan-3-ols
and flavonols are promising natural antimicrobial agents that could prevent juice spoilage and oral disease.
While bioavailability of gallated forms is generally lower than that of ungallated flavan-3-ols
(Warden et al.
This systematic analysis of randomized clinical trials to assess the effects of cocoa, chocolate, or cocoa flavan-3-ols
on classic cardiovascular biomarkers included a total of 42 trials and 1297 subjects with relevant outcomes.
Flavonols such as quercetin 3-O-glycosides, monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols
such as catechin, epicatechin and procyanidins and anthocyanins such as cyanidin 3-O-glycosides are the major flavonoid presence in apple.