hyperventilation

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hyperventilation

 [hi″per-ven″tĭ-la´shun]
abnormally fast and deep breathing, the result of either an emotional state or a physiological condition. Emotional causes include acute anxiety and emotional tension, such as in nervous, anxious patients who may have other functional disturbances related to emotional problems. Physiological causes include a rapid decrease in intracranial pressure, other neurologic problems, and metabolic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular conditions. More prolonged hyperventilation may be caused by certain disorders of the central nervous system, or by drugs that increase the sensitivity of the respiratory centers (such as high concentrations of salicylates). Transient respiratory alkalosis commonly occurs when a person is hyperventilating. Iatrogenic hyperventilation may be seen in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

It was formerly considered standard practice to hyperventilate patients following severe head injuries. However, now practice guidelines published by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses note that current research does not conclusively support this practice, and they urge judiciousness in its use. The Cochrane review is another study that notes that more clinical trials are required to determine the efficacy of hyperventilation in treatment of head trauma.

Symptoms of hyperventilation in the anxious patient include “faintness” or impaired consciousness without actual loss of consciousness. At the outset the patient may feel a tightness of the chest, a sensation of smothering, and some degree of apprehension. Other symptoms may be related to the heart and digestive tract, such as palpitation or pounding of the heart, fullness in the throat, and pain over the stomach region. In prolonged attacks the patient may exhibit tetany with muscular spasm of the hands and feet, and perioral numbness.

Short-term immediate treatment consists of having the patient slow the rate of breathing. Determining the underlying physical or emotional cause is necessary; the type of treatment depends on the cause. Medication, stress reduction measures, and controlled breathing exercises will control hyperventilation. Health care providers are no longer advised to use the technique of rebreathing into a paper bag, because of the danger of hypoxia.
hyperventilation syndrome a complex of symptoms that accompany hypocapnia caused by hyperventilation, including palpitation, a feeling of shortness of breath or air hunger, lightheadedness or giddiness, profuse perspiration, and tingling sensations in the fingertips, face, or toes. Prolonged overbreathing may result in vasomotor collapse and loss of consciousness. Hyperventilation that is unrecognized by the patient is a common cause of the symptoms associated with chronic anxiety or panic attacks.

hy·per·ven·ti·la·tion

(hī'pĕr-ven'ti-lā'shŭn),
Increased alveolar ventilation relative to metabolic carbon dioxide production, so that alveolar carbon dioxide pressure decreases to below normal.
Synonym(s): overventilation

hyperventilation

/hy·per·ven·ti·la·tion/ (-ven″tĭ-la´shun)
1. abnormally increased pulmonary ventilation, resulting in reduction of carbon dioxide tension, which, if prolonged, may lead to alkalosis.
2. see under syndrome.

hyperventilation

(hī′pər-vĕn′tl-ā′shən)
n.
Abnormally fast or deep respiration, which results in the loss of carbon dioxide from the blood, thereby causing a fall in blood pressure, tingling of the extremities, and sometimes fainting.

hyperventilation

[-ven′tilā′shən]
Etymology: Gk, hyper + ventilare, to fan
pulmonary ventilation rate greater than that metabolically necessary for gas exchange, resulting from an increased respiration rate, an increased tidal volume, or both. Hyperventilation causes an excessive intake of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide and may cause hyperoxygenation. Hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis then occur, leading to dizziness, faintness, numbness of the fingers and toes, possibly syncope, and psychomotor impairment. Causes of hyperventilation include asthma or early emphysema; increased metabolic rate caused by exercise, fever, hyperthyroidism, or infection; lesions of the central nervous system, as in cerebral thrombosis, encephalitis, head injuries, or meningitis; hypoxia or metabolic acidosis; use of hormones and drugs, such as epINEPHrine, progesterone, and salicylates; difficulties with mechanical respirators; and psychogenic factors, such as acute anxiety or pain. Compare hypoventilation. See also respiratory center.

hyperventilation

Pulmonology An ↑ in respiratory frequency or volume Effect ↓ CO2, intracranial pressure Physiology pH-mediated cerebrovascular constriction; hypocarbia may restore cerebral auroregulation, alkalinze CSF, ↑ perfusion of ischemic brain tissue Complications Cerebral hypoxia, inverse steal, rebound intracranial HTN, myocardial ischemia

hy·per·ven·ti·la·tion

(hī'pĕr-ven'ti-lā'shŭn)
Increased alveolar ventilation relative to metabolic carbon dioxide production, so that alveolar carbon dioxide pressure decreases to below normal.

hyperventilation

Unusually or abnormally deep or rapid breathing. This is most commonly the result of strenuous exercise but the term is more often applied to a rate and depth of breathing inappropriate to the needs of the body. This results in excessive loss of carbon dioxide from the blood and sometimes a consequent spasm of the muscles of the forearms and calves. Hyperventilation can, rarely, be a feature of BRAIN DAMAGE, poisoning, fever or THYROTOXICOSIS.

hyperventilation

an increase in air inhalation into the lungs resulting from an increase in the depth or rate of breathing. This causes a reduction of carbon dioxide in arterial blood, leading to dizziness and, if continued, to loss of consciousness.

Hyperventilation

Rapid, deep breathing, possibly exceeding 40 breaths/minute. The most common cause is anxiety, although fever, aspirin overdose, serious infections, stroke, or other diseases of the brain or nervous system.

hyperventilation

increased ventilation of the lungs, such that in alveolar gas (and therefore also in arterial blood) the partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( P CO2) is lowered and that of oxygen ( P O2) is raised, i.e. ventilation exceeds that which would maintain the normal blood gas levels, with the rate of excretion of CO2 exceeding that of its metabolic production until a new equilibrium is reached. Hyperventilation may be deliberate in order to prolong subsequent breath-holding, e.g. for diving; it may accompany anxiety or be a feature of psychological disorder. Low P CO2 (hypocapnia) can give rise to symptoms. At sea level the raised P O2 has no significant effect (because at normal P O2 haemoglobin is already virtually saturated with oxygen) but in altitude acclimatization hyperventilation is a compensatory response (raising the lowered P O2 improves oxygen saturation); also in acidaemia (decreasing P CO2 raises pH).

hyperventilation

rapid shallow breathing characterized by fall in blood carbon dioxide levels leading to tetany (see rebreathing)

hyperventilation (hīˈ·per·venˈ·t·lāˑ·shn),

n condition in which the body exhales carbon dioxide at a rate faster than which it is being produced. May cause dizziness and tingling of toes and fingers and chest pain if continued. Also called
overbreathing.
Enlarge picture
Hyperventilation.

hy·per·ven·ti·la·tion

(hī'pĕr-ven'ti-lā'shŭn)
Increased alveolar ventilation relative to metabolic carbon dioxide production.

hyperventilation,

n 1. an abnormally prolonged, rapid, and deep breathing; also the condition produced by overbreathing of oxygen at high pressures. It is marked by confusion, dizziness, numbness, and muscular cramps brought on by such breathing.
n 2. rapid, deep, forced breathing frequently resulting from anxiety. It results in a transient loss of carbon dioxide and respiratory alkalosis. Symptoms include anxiety, circumoral numbness, tingling sensation, faintness, and occasionally, carpopedal spasms, tetany, and syncope.
hyperventilation, managing,
n the steps that may be taken to assist a patient who experiences sudden, increased respiration that may be the result of anxiety or pain; may include verbal reassurances, repositioning, or deep breathing exercises.

hyperventilation

1. increase of air in the lungs above the normal amount.
2. abnormally prolonged and deep breathing, usually associated with acute anxiety or emotional tension. A transient, respiratory alkalosis commonly results from hyperventilation. More prolonged hyperventilation may be caused by disorders of the central nervous system, or by drugs.

hyperventilation syndrome
nervous or hyperexcitable dogs may hyperventilate to the point of syncope.
References in periodicals archive ?
This allowed the treated mice to take deeper breaths - rather than having a shallow, fast breathing pattern, as in the untreated obese mice group - thereby counteracting hypoventilation.
In children, emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include fast breathing or difficulty in breathing, bluish or gray skin colour, not drinking enough fluids, severe or persistent vomiting, not waking up or not interacting, being so irritable that the child does not want to be held, flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough.
Shallow, fast breathing reduces the carbon dioxide in the body, which constricts blood vessels and slows the circulation of blood and oxygen to the body and brain.
When you consume more than 1,000 mg of caffeine in a day, you may cause vomiting, fast breathing, and seizures.
The symptoms of mild hypothermia include tiredness, constant shivering, low energy and fast breathing.
Unnaturally fast breathing * Fast pulse rate * Apprehension There may also be: * Dizziness or faintness * Trembling, sweating and dry mouth, or marked tingling in the hands * Tingling and cramps in the hands mouth and feet and around the mouth What should I do if someone is hyperventilating?