Fair Information Practices
Also found in: Acronyms.
Fair Information PracticesA general term for a set of standards governing the collection and use of personal data and addressing issues of privacy and accuracy. In the UK, the term Data Protection is preferred; in the EU, the term Personal Data Privacy is preferred.
OECD’s Guidelines on Protection of Privacy and Transborder Flows of Personal Data principles:
Collection Limitation Principle
There should be limits to the collection of personal data and any such data should be obtained by lawful and fair means and, where appropriate, with the knowledge or consent of the data subject.
Data Quality Principle
Personal data should be relevant to the purposes for which they are to be used, and, to the extent necessary for those purposes, should be accurate, complete and kept up-to-date.
Purpose Specification Principle
The purposes for which personal data are collected should be specified not later than at the time of data collection and the subsequent use limited to the fulfilment of those purposes, or such others as are not incompatible with those purposes, and as are specified on each occasion of change of purpose.
Use Limitation Principle
Personal data should not be disclosed, made available or otherwise used for purposes other than those specified in accordance with the Purpose Specification Principle except:
(a) with the consent of the data subject; or
(b) by the authority of law.
Security Safeguards Principle
Personal data should be protected by reasonable security safeguards against such risks as loss or unauthorised access, destruction, use, modification or disclosure of data.
There should be a general policy of openness about developments, practices and policies with respect to personal data. Means should be readily available of establishing the existence and nature of personal data, and the main purposes of their use, as well as the identity and usual residence of the data controller.
Individual Participation Principle
An individual should have the right:
• To obtain from a data controller, or otherwise, confirmation of whether or not the data controller has data relating to him or her;
• To have communicated to him or her data relating to him or her within a reasonable time; at a charge, if any, that is not excessive; in a reasonable manner; and in a form that is readily intelligible to him or her;
• To be given reasons if a request made under sub-paragraphs(a) and (b) is denied, and to be able to challenge such denial; and
• To challenge data relating to him or her and, if the challenge is successful to have the data erased, rectified, completed or amended.
A data controller should be accountable for complying with measures which give effect to the principles stated above.