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Etymology: Gk, exo + ophthalmos, eye
an abnormal condition characterized by a marked protrusion of the eyeballs (exophthalmos, exophthalmus), usually resulting from the increased volume of the orbital contents caused by a tumor; swelling associated with cerebral, intraocular, or intraorbital edema or hemorrhage; paralysis of or trauma to the extraocular muscles; or cavernous sinus thrombosis. It may also be caused by endocrine disorders such as hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease, varicose veins within the orbit, or injury to orbital bones. Visual acuity may be impaired in exophthalmia; keratitis, ulceration, infection, and blindness may also occur. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Acute advanced exophthalmia is often irreversible. Also called protrusio bulbi. See also proptosis. exophthalmic, adj.
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, exophthalmus (eks'of-thal'mos, -mŭs)
Protrusion of one or both eyeballs; can be congenital and familial, or due to pathology, such as a retroorbital tumor (usually unilateral) or thyroid disease (usually bilateral).
Synonym(s): proptosis.
[G. ex, out, + ophthalmos, eye]


, exophthalmia, exophthalmus (ĕks″ŏf-thăl′mōs) (-mŭs)
Abnormal anterior protrusion of the eyeball. This may be due to thyrotoxicosis, tumor of the orbit, orbital cellulitis, leukemia, aneurysm, or vascular malformation. exophthalmic (-mĭk), adjective

pulsating exophthalmos

Exophthalmos accompanied by pulsation and bruit due to an aneurysm behind the eye.