2000) Homocysteine elicits a DNA damage response in neurons that promotes apoptosis and hypersensitivity to excitotoxicity
Recovery of structure and function of inner ear afferent synapses following kainic acid excitotoxicity
Nicotine is neuroprotective against glutamate excitotoxicity
and it also inhibits apoptosis.
Among these are inflammation, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity
, toxic exposure, and mitochondrial dysfunction.
According to research published in the journal Phytotherapy Research, it reduces oxidative stress in the brain, neuroinflammation, and excitotoxicity
Also, cytokines and chemokines produced by macrophages/microglia and activated astrocytes (TNF-[alpha], IL-6, GM-CSF, IL-10) which induce neuronal damage mediated by oxidative stress, excitotoxicity
and distress of cellular defense mechanisms (heat-shock proteins--HSP, chaperones and ubiquitin-proteasome system) with consequent apoptosis.
Several theories related to the etiopathogenesis of ALS have been proposed, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity
defective axonal transport, and abnormal protein aggregation; however the true etiopathogenesis is not known with certainty (3).
sup] Glutamate excitotoxicity
was observed to be related to neuronal apoptosis and necrosis after hypothermic circulatory arrest.
These are so powerful that they can actually prevent excessive blood coagulation, remove toxins, stop or block excitotoxicity
(which disturbs brain balance and health).
14),(15),(16) As this was found to correlate with glutamatergic excitotoxicity
of the withdrawal state, it was put forth as a possible mechanism mediating the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal (17) The oxidative stress parameters showed correlation with the severity of withdrawal state.
In vitro studies have indicated a relationship between Hcy and DNA damage, apoptosis, excitotoxicity
, and oxidative stress, which are of great importance in neurodegeneration [21, 22].
In ischemic injury, oxidative stress is mainly triggered by glutamatergic excitotoxicity
as a result of the activation of numerous calcium-dependent enzymes (especially neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)) that produce excessive amounts of oxygen and other reactive species.