evaluation

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evaluation

 [e-val″u-a´shun]
a critical appraisal or assessment; a judgment of the value, worth, character, or effectiveness of something; measurement of progress. A broad view of evaluation in health care includes three approaches, directed toward structure, process, and outcome, depending on the focus of evaluation and the criteria or standards being used.

Structure evaluations are concerned with physical facilities, equipment, staffing, and other characteristics of the facility or agency that have an effect on the quality of care being provided. Process evaluations center on the activities of the provider and what the provider has done to assess, plan, and implement nursing care. The criteria used in process evaluations in nursing are the Standards of Nursing Practice developed by the American Nurses' Association. Structure and process evaluations are primarily concerned with quality assurance and nursing audits. Outcome evaluations focus on the patient and goals set forth in the care plan and therefore are patient- and goal-oriented. Thus, outcome evaluation is the measurement of a patient's progress or lack of progress toward achievement of specified goals.

The purpose of the evaluation is to determine whether outcome criteria have been met and how care for the patient might be improved. Evaluation is not done to find fault or lay blame for inefficiency, incompetence, or carelessness. It is done for the purpose of improvement, by identifying specific areas that need change for the better. Some weaknesses that could be found during evaluation are vague or inaccurate statement of the problem because of poor assessment or faulty analysis and interpretation of data, unrealistic goal-setting due to overestimating capabilities of the patient or available resources, and well-intentioned but inappropriate nursing interventions that do not effectively meet the hoped-for outcome criteria.

Evaluation of direct care and the effectiveness of care plans and interventions is an ongoing activity. It serves to direct reassessment of patient status, the reordering of priorities, new goal-setting, and revision of nursing care as indicated.

The basic components of evaluation are (1) identifying the parameters of the subject of appraisal, (2) developing criteria specific to the topic within the parameters, (3) data gathering, (4) measuring the data against the criteria, and (5) employing the results of assessment for improvement of the process, status, behavior, or activity evaluated.

Parameters are the exact dimensions or fixed limits that clearly define the area of evaluation. They establish the frame of reference within which the process will take place and are essential to accurate interpretation and meaningful use of the results of the evaluation. Parameters to be considered might include the framework of time within which the data gathering will take place, description of the kinds of data to be obtained, and specification of the patient population selected for evaluation of patient care. In a nursing audit, for example, the medical records chosen for audit might be those of patients whose admission and discharge dates were within a specific period of time, and whose age range and diagnoses were similar. Since it is a nursing audit, the kind of data collected should be limited to information related to the area of nursing activities and the resulting patient care outcomes recorded on the patient's chart.

In the assessment of a patient's status on the health/illness continuum, the parameters might limit the appraisal to respiratory function, neuromuscular function, emotional status, or any of a number of areas that are important to accomplishing the overall goals and objectives of health care for that specific patient.

Data gathering involves the collection of information that gives factual and objective evidence about the subject being evaluated. The evidence may be obtained through observation, interview, the review of patient records, and, as in the case of assessment of a patient's health/illness status, through such procedures as laboratory analysis and testing, radiologic studies, and other diagnostic techniques, as well as a physical assessment or examination and history taking.

The data collected become documented evidence, which is then measured against the established criteria. If the evidence indicates that all of the criteria are being met, there is no indication of a problem in the area of evaluation. If the evidence shows that certain criteria are not met, these deficiencies are identified as the ones needing attention so that there can be progress toward the stated goals.
The evaluation process using occupational therapy as an exemplar. From Pedretti and Early, 2001.
criterion-referenced evaluation evaluation of performance by judging an individual's behavior, performance, or knowledge against specific criteria or standards. See also criterion-referenced testing.
formative evaluation evaluation that involves feedback regarding progress being made; it involves the continuous gathering of evaluative data throughout a learning experience.
normative-referenced evaluation evaluation in which the scores of an individual are interpreted in light of the norm or distribution of scores of others taking the same test; progress is determined by how well the individual compares with peers.
outcome evaluation see evaluation.
process evaluation see evaluation.
product evaluation in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as determining the effectiveness of new products or equipment.
structure evaluation see evaluation.
summative evaluation evaluation that involves one statement of the extent of achievement of objectives or goals; it involves the gathering of evaluative data at the end of a learning experience.

e·val·u·a·tion

(ē-val'yū-ā'shŭn),
Systematic, objective assessment of the relevance, effectiveness, and impact of activities in the light of specified objectives.

evaluation

assessment of performance against an established set of goals or objectives.

evaluation

Child psychiatry A process conducted by mental health professionals resulting in an opinion about a child's mental or emotional capacity, which may include treatment or placement recommendations. See Assessment Medtalk The assessment of a person's past medical history and present status. See Cost effectiveness evaluation, Economic evaluation, PART evaluation, PRIME-MD evaluation, Psychiatric evaluation, Urodynamic evaluation.

e·val·u·a·tion

(ĕ-val'yū-ā'shŭn)
1. nursing Determining whether expected outcomes were met; measuring effectiveness of nursing care, medical care, and forms of health care by other providers.
2. Synthesis of examination findings into a defined cluster of diagnostic classifications.
Synonym(s): assessment (1) .

evaluation,

n 1. in clinical medicine, assessment of the patient for the purposes of forming a diagnosis and plan of treatment.
2. in research, assessment of a treatment or diagnostic test through experiment and measurement.

e·val·u·a·tion

(ĕ-val'yū-ā'shŭn)
Systematic, objective assessment of the relevance, effectiveness, and impact of activities in the light of specified objectives.

evaluation,

n to make a judgment or appraisal of a condition or situation. In dentistry, used to describe the clinical judgment of a patient's dental health or an appraisal of staff performance.
evaluation studies,
n.pl the control study of the comparative value of different treatment modalities or medications.

evaluation

a critical appraisal or assessment; a judgment of the value, worth, character or effectiveness of that which is being assessed.

Patient discussion about evaluation

Q. What does an autism evaluation consist of? How long does it take? My two year old is getting evaluated for autism and I want to know what to expect. He is already in speech therapy. His speech therapist said she sees no signs of autism but I still want him tested just to be sure.

A. Hi Hun.. my twin son Thomas was 3 when he was taken to an assessment unit it was a 6 week look at him and how he was and acted, within a few sessions he was diagnosed with severe autism, he is nine now and still non verbal and still in nappies, i have to say autism isn't just about the lack of speech its a lot more than this, lack of eye contact , no interest in playing with other children head banging limited diet also can he a factor, Thomas had a speech therapist before he was assest at the “child development center” and even she said she thought he had autism but its not down to them they just pass on to the right people what she seen during the session, age two is very Young to be assest that is why (depending where your from) they like to leave it to three as speech is still developing.

Q. Can someone please explain the reason for juvenile delinquency?

A. Juvenile delinquency is not necessarily a trait of bipolar disorder, although it is possible for a person with bipolar disorder to act on impulse while experiencing an episode. To use Justins example, shop lifting, an adult in a manic episode may spend all of their money without thought or reason, where a child/youth may not have money to spend which may lead to shop lifting. In a manic episode Justin is right the lines between right and wrong can be blurred, thus the person suffering may make poor decisions and can find themselves in trouble with the law.

Q. Are Bipolar disorder and alcoholism related to each other? I need to know this.

A. People with bipolar disorder have a higher risk of becoming dependant on alcohol or drugs. It is called self medicating. Usually this behavior begins before there is a diagnosis or if diagnosed and being treated the treatment is not working properly. The substance offers the person a "mental break" the problem is this break is temperary because alcohol is a depressant so only for a little while is their any relief and then the depression worsens. It becomes a nasty cycle. If you or someone you know is self medicating and is being treated for bipolar disorder I would suggest going to the doctors and talking about your/their adictions and deside with a professional if the medications currently being taken are effective. From there hopefully the need for alcohol or drugs will lessen, then it is an issue of making a decision to stop all together.

More discussions about evaluation
References in periodicals archive ?
Activity steps: archive consolidated documents to support retrieval of decision, perform lessons learned (if applicable), review the decision afterwards to gain input for the improvement of evaluation methods and criteria.
In order to properly address all important usability issues in different users' roles, particularly the first two (learner and teacher/designer), current design guidelines and usability evaluation methods should integrate cognitions from other fields such as pedagogy, psychology, education, multimedia learning etc.
Considering the emphasis on accountability in education and the coinciding calls for school counselors to develop evaluation skills, a field-based introductory training session on evaluation methods was developed and provided to a small group of practicing school counselors.
Kwang Kim (Samsung Electronics), director of the Compatibility Working Group, remarks "We have established evaluation methods by carrying out compatibility tests and confirmed improving the compatibility of products of member companies by using the established evaluation methods.
Several possible learning and evaluation methods were discussed, including group case analysis, individual presentations to the class, manager interviews, etc.
Introduction: Part 1: Analysing shelf-life: Modelling shelf-life; Sensory evaluation methods for shelf-life assessment; Accelerated shelf-life tests; Advanced instrumental methods: the use of 1H relaxation NMR to monitor starch retrogradation.
The policy evaluation system -- the first of its kind to be introduced in the central government -- is designed to review administrative works from various angles, including whether they are necessary, effective or high on the priority list, by using a common evaluation method.
However, for these evaluation methods, as with any hypothesis test, a key issue is their statistical power, that is, their ability to reject the null hypothesis when it is incorrect.
Oftentimes, the move to a community-oriented approach requires redesigning department infrastructures, training systems, evaluation methods, and strategic planning activities to accommodate community input.
The insights gained in site visits to best practice organizations include a qualitative analysis of the organizational enablers, implementation strategies, and evaluation methods of the diverse group of innovative companies.
The most appropriate evaluation methods should be selected to measure the achievement of those objectives.
The NMSS Medical Advisory Board cautions that more data are needed: A larger study using a lower, hopefully safer dose and more standard evaluation methods is being planned.

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